Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a femtosecond mode-locked, all-fiberized laser that operates in the 2 μm region and that incorporates a saturable absorber based on a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI). Our fiberized saturable absorber was prepared by depositing a mechanically exfoliated, ~30 μm-thick Bi2Te3 TI layer on a side-polished optical fiber platform. The bulk crystalline structure of the prepared Bi2Te3 layer was confirmed by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The modulation depth of the prepared saturable absorber was measured to be ~20.6%. Using the saturable absorber, it is shown that stable, ultrafast pulses with a temporal width of ~795 fs could readily be generated at a wavelength of 1935 nm from a thulium/holmium co-doped fiber ring cavity. This experimental demonstration confirms that bulk structured, TI-based saturable absorbers can readily be used as an ultra-fast mode-locker for 2 μm lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2D crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y.-M. Jhon, J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (10)

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, H. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 013113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, T. H. Runcorn, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, E. M. Dianov, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Bonaccorso, Z. Jiang, E. Flahaut, B. H. Chapman, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, “Mid-infrared Raman-soliton continuum pumped by a nanotube-mode-locked sub-picosecond Tm-doped MOPFA,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23261–23271 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (13)

K. D. Polder, S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: A pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(2), 199–206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, S. Yamashita, “10GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, Y. M. Chang, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “An all fiberized, 1.89-μm Q-switched laser employing carbon nanotube evanescent field interaction,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 669–673 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Ren, X. Qi, Y. Liu, G. Hao, Z. Huang, X. Zou, L. Yang, J. Li, J. Zhong, “Large-scale production of ultrathin topological insulator bismuth telluride nanosheets by a hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(11), 4921–4926 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (8)

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
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D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1209–1218 (2010).
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M. Z. Hasan, C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
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2009 (7)

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 microm using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11007–11012 (2009).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. ONeill, A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
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D. Faucher, M. Bernier, N. Caron, R. Vallée, “Erbium-doped all-fiber laser at 2.94 microm,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3313–3315 (2009).
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2008 (3)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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H.-J. Noh, H. Koh, S.-J. Oh, J.-H. Park, H.-D. Kim, J. D. Rameau, T. Valla, T. E. Kidd, P. D. Johnson, Y. Hu, Q. Li, “Spin-orbit interaction effect in the electronic structure of Bi2Te3 observed by angle-resolve photoemission spectroscopy,” Europhys. Lett. 81(5), 57006 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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2007 (2)

M. König, S. Wiedmann, C. Brüne, A. Roth, H. Buhmann, L. W. Molenkamp, X.-L. Qi, S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum Spin Hall Insulator State in Hgte Quantum Wells,” Science 318(5851), 766–770 (2007).
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S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 241–243 (2007).
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2005 (1)

N. M. Fried, K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
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2004 (2)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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2000 (1)

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(26), 5607–5616 (2000).
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1998 (1)

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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1997 (2)

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+ -doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1103–1111 (1997).
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A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, S. Sudo, “S. Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
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1996 (1)

E. A. Vinogradov, “Cavity electrodynamics in polariton spectra of thin films,” Laser Phys. 6(2), 326–333 (1996).

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Phot. Tech. Lett. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).

1992 (1)

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1969 (1)

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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 013113 (2013).
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Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
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Bae, S.

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D. Teweldebrhan, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Exfoliation and characterization of bismuth telluride atomic quintuples and quasi-two-dimensional crystals,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1209–1218 (2010).
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H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(26), 5607–5616 (2000).
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Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, “Solution processing of graphene, topological insulators and other 2D crystals for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 63–78 (2014).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(39), 3874–3899 (2009).
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B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 013113 (2013).
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K. D. Polder, S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: A pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(2), 199–206 (2012).
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M. König, S. Wiedmann, C. Brüne, A. Roth, H. Buhmann, L. W. Molenkamp, X.-L. Qi, S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum Spin Hall Insulator State in Hgte Quantum Wells,” Science 318(5851), 766–770 (2007).
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S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Phot. Tech. Lett. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).

Buhmann, H.

M. König, S. Wiedmann, C. Brüne, A. Roth, H. Buhmann, L. W. Molenkamp, X.-L. Qi, S.-C. Zhang, “Quantum Spin Hall Insulator State in Hgte Quantum Wells,” Science 318(5851), 766–770 (2007).
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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm Wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, H. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Caron, N.

Carrier, J.

Carvajal, J. J.

Cava, R. J.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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Chang, Y. M.

M. Jung, J. Koo, Y. M. Chang, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “An all fiberized, 1.89-μm Q-switched laser employing carbon nanotube evanescent field interaction,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 669–673 (2012).
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Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, Y.-W. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
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Chapman, B. H.

Checkelsky, J. G.

Y. S. Hor, A. Richardella, P. Roushan, Y. Xia, J. G. Checkelsky, A. Yazdani, M. Z. Hasan, N. P. Ong, R. J. Cava, “p-type Bi2Se3 for topological insulator and low-temperature thermoelectric applications,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 195208 (2009).
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Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Cheng, H.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
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W. B. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2 microm using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11007–11012 (2009).
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Choi, Y.

Christensen, L. E.

Chu, J.-H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Clarkson, W. A.

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
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Dai, X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Daikohara, K.

H. Bando, K. Koizumi, Y. Oikawa, K. Daikohara, V. A. Kulbachinskii, H. Ozaki, “The time-dependent process of oxidation of the surface of Bi2Te3 studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(26), 5607–5616 (2000).
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Debarge, G.

Debnath, P.

J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
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M. Jung, J. Koo, Y. M. Chang, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, J. H. Lee, “An all fiberized, 1.89-μm Q-switched laser employing carbon nanotube evanescent field interaction,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(9), 669–673 (2012).
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M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y. W. Song, J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 μm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
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Dianov, E. M.

Díaz, F.

Donegan, J. F.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+ -doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1103–1111 (1997).
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Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Fan, D.

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Faucher, D.

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, T. H. Runcorn, V. M. Mashinsky, O. I. Medvedkov, E. M. Dianov, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Bonaccorso, Z. Jiang, E. Flahaut, B. H. Chapman, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, “Mid-infrared Raman-soliton continuum pumped by a nanotube-mode-locked sub-picosecond Tm-doped MOPFA,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23261–23271 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 013113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. ONeill, A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J.-H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S.-K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flahaut, E.

Fortin, V.

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The laser schematic. (b) Measured SEM image of the mechanically exfoliated, thick Bi2Te3 layer. (c) Bi2Te3 layer depth measurement result using an alpha step profiler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured Raman spectrum of the mechanically exfoliated, thick Bi2Te3 layer. (b) XPS scan for Bi 4f region. (c) XPS scan for Te 3d region. (d) Measured nonlinear absorption curve at 1.95 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (a) oscilloscope trace and (b) electrical spectrum of output pulses (Inset: wide-span view)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured optical spectrum of output pulses (b) Theoretically calculated Kelly sideband position relative to the center wavelength (Δλ) as a function of the temporal width of transform-limited pulses (TFWHM) for various Kelly sideband orders (m).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured optical spectrum of amplified pulses. (b) Measured autocorrelation trace.

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