Abstract

A compact femtosecond dual-oscillator pump-probe setup with 48 MHz-repetition rate, relying on asynchronous optical sampling, is presented. The relative timing jitter between both lasers over the whole pump-probe delay range is of the order of or lower than 500 fs. We demonstrate that both a picosecond temporal resolution and a 48 MHz spectral resolution combined with the fast acquisition rate inherent to the asynchronous optical sampling allow performing broadband opto-acoustic imaging with a spectrum covering more than two decades from 300 MHz to 150 GHz. As an illustration, the opto-acoustic response of a supported thin film is investigated, revealing high frequency acoustic echoes close to the epicenter as well as low GHz surface acoustic waves propagating up to 40μm away from the epicenter. Semi-analytical calculations have been carried out and perfectly reproduce the dispersion of the surface acoustic waves experimentally observed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chvez, A. Shchepetov, P. O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of confined acoustic phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 095503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Kelf, W. Hoshii, P. H. Otsuka, H. Sakuma, I. A. Veres, R. M. Cole, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, M. Tomoda, O. Matsuda, O. B. Wright, “Mapping gigahertz vibrations in a plasmonic-phononic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15, 023013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (8)

T. Valier-Brasier, T. Dehoux, B. Audoin, “Scaled behavior of interface waves at an imperfect solid-solid interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 024904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruchhausen, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. Hettich, R. Gebs, M. Grossmann, O. Ristow, A. Bartels, M. Fischer, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, E. Kapon, T. Dekorsy, “Investigation of coherent acoustic phonons in terahertz quantum cascade laser structures using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 033517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191606 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, S. D. Sharples, R. J. Smith, M. Clark, M. G. Somekh, “Determination of crystallographic orientation of large grain metals with surface acoustic waves,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 738–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert, M. Grossmann, O. Ristow, M. Hettich, A. Bruchhausen, E. C. S. Barretto, E. Scheer, V. Gusev, T. Dekorsy, “Spatial-temporally resolved high-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon investigated by femtosecond spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 013108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, C. Gu, J. Sun, C. Wang, T. Gardiner, D. T. Reid, “Asynchronous midinfrared ultrafast optical parametric oscillator for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 187–189 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, K. Kawamoto, Y. D. Hsieh, Y. Sakaguchi, M. Jewariya, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, “Enhancement of spectral resolution and accuracy in asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for low-pressure gas-phase analysis,” Opt. Express 20, 15071–15078 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, D. T. Reid, “Frequency stability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19, 24159–24164 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, H. Schäfer, M. Nagel, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, “High-resolution terahertz spectrometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 159–168 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruchhausen, R. Gebs, F. Hudert, D. Issenmann, G. Klatt, A. Bartels, O. Schecker, R. Waitz, A. Erbe, E. Scheer, J. R. Huntzinger, A. Mlayah, T. Dekorsy, “Subharmonic resonant optical excitation of confined acoustic modes in a free-standing semiconductor membrane at ghz frequencies with a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 077401 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Dilhaire, G. Pernot, G. Calbris, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Grauby, “Heterodyne picosecond thermoreflectance applied to nanoscale thermal metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114314 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Salenbien, R. Cote, J. Goossens, P. Limaye, R. Labie, C. Glorieux, “Laser-based surface acoustic wave dispersion spectroscopy for extraction of thicknesses, depth, and elastic parameters of a subsurface layer: Feasibility study on intermetallic layer structure in integrated circuit solder joint,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Higuet, T. Valier-Brasier, T. Dehoux, B. Audoin, “Beam distortion detection and deflectometry measurements of gigahertz surface acoustic waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 114905 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

G. Pernot, M. Stoffel, I. Savic, F. Pezzoli, P. Chen, G. Savelli, A. Jacquot, J. Schumann, U. Denker, I. MÖnch, C. Deneke, O. G. Schmidt, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Wang, M. Plissonnier, A. Rastelli, S. Dilhaire, N. Mingo, “Precise control of thermal conductivity at the nanoscale through individual phonon-scattering barriers,” Nat. Mater. 9, 491–495 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thevenard, E. Peronne, C. Gourdon, C. Testelin, M. Cubukcu, E. Charron, S. Vincent, A. Lemaitre, B. Perrin, “Effect of picosecond strain pulses on thin layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)(As,P),” Phys. Rev. B 82, 104422 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bonello, L. Belliard, J. Pierre, J. O. Vasseur, B. Perrin, O. Boyko, “Negative refraction of surface acoustic waves in the subgigahertz range,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 104109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Gebs, G. Klatt, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Bartels, “High-speed asynchronous optical sampling with sub-50fs time resolution,” Opt. Express 18, 5974–5983 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Saito, O. Matsuda, M. Tomoda, O. B. Wright, “Imaging gigahertz surface acoustic waves through the photoelastic effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2632–2638 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. A. Maznev, A. G. Every, “Surface acoustic waves with negative group velocity in a thin film structure on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Yang, E. H. Anderson, K. A. Nelson, “High-frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nanostructures characterized by coherent extreme ultraviolet beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 093103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. M. Profunser, O. B. Wright, J. Masson, S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dehoux, N. Chigarev, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, “Effect of lateral electronic diffusion on acoustic diffraction in picosecond ultrasonics,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 214307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Stoica, Y. M. Sheu, D. A. Reis, R. Clarke, “Wideband detection of transient solid-state dynamics using ultrafast fiber lasers and asynchronous optical sampling,” Opt. Express 16, 2322–2335 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Giannetti, B. Revaz, F. Banfi, M. Montagnese, G. Ferrini, F. Cilento, S. Maccalli, P. Vavassori, G. Oliviero, E. Bontempi, L. E. Depero, V. Metlushko, F. Parmigiani, “Thermomechanical behavior of surface acoustic waves in ordered arrays of nanodisks studied by near-infrared pump-probe diffraction experiments,” Phys. Rev. B. 76, 125413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Bartels, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, K. Kohler, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy at kilohertz-scan-rates over nanosecond-time-delays without mechanical delay line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, T. Araki, “Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Janke, M. Först, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bartels, “Asynchronous optical sampling for high-speed characterization of integrated resonant terahertz sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1405–1407 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. Deguil, E. Mottay, F. Salin, P. Legros, D. Choquet, “Novel diode-pumped infrared tunable laser system for multi-photon microscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63, 23–26 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, “Real-time imaging of surface acoustic waves in thin films and microstructures on opaque substrates (invited),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 519–522 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

L. A. Jiang, S. T. Wong, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, “Measuring timing jitter with optical cross correlations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1047–1052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L. S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, V. E. Gusev, “Watching ripples on crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. W. Murray, S. Krishnaswamy, J. D. Achenbach, “Laser generation of ultrasound in films and coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3561–3563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

O. B. Wright, K. Kawashima, “Coherent phonon detection from ultrafast surface vibrations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668–1671 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, “Surface generation and detection of phonons by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129–4138 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. Thomsen, J. Strait, Z. Vardeny, H. J. Maris, J. Tauc, J. J. Hauser, “Coherent phonon generation and detection by picosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 989–992 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

F. H. Featherston, J. R. Neighbours, “Elastic Constants of Tantalum, Tungsten, and Molybdenum,” Phys. Rev. 130, 1324–1333 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

I. Tolstoy, E. Usdin, “Wave propagation in elastic plates: Low and high mode dispersion,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 37–42 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Achenbach, J. D.

T. W. Murray, S. Krishnaswamy, J. D. Achenbach, “Laser generation of ultrasound in films and coatings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3561–3563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahopelto, J.

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chvez, A. Shchepetov, P. O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of confined acoustic phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 095503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alzina, F.

J. Cuffe, O. Ristow, E. Chvez, A. Shchepetov, P. O. Chapuis, F. Alzina, M. Hettich, M. Prunnila, J. Ahopelto, T. Dekorsy, C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lifetimes of confined acoustic phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 095503 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Yang, E. H. Anderson, K. A. Nelson, “High-frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nanostructures characterized by coherent extreme ultraviolet beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 093103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Audoin, B.

T. Valier-Brasier, T. Dehoux, B. Audoin, “Scaled behavior of interface waves at an imperfect solid-solid interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 024904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Higuet, T. Valier-Brasier, T. Dehoux, B. Audoin, “Beam distortion detection and deflectometry measurements of gigahertz surface acoustic waves,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 114905 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dehoux, N. Chigarev, C. Rossignol, B. Audoin, “Effect of lateral electronic diffusion on acoustic diffraction in picosecond ultrasonics,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 214307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ballandras, S.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. M. Profunser, O. B. Wright, J. Masson, S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, F.

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G. Pernot, M. Stoffel, I. Savic, F. Pezzoli, P. Chen, G. Savelli, A. Jacquot, J. Schumann, U. Denker, I. MÖnch, C. Deneke, O. G. Schmidt, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Wang, M. Plissonnier, A. Rastelli, S. Dilhaire, N. Mingo, “Precise control of thermal conductivity at the nanoscale through individual phonon-scattering barriers,” Nat. Mater. 9, 491–495 (2010).
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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191606 (2012).
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A. Bruchhausen, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. Hettich, R. Gebs, M. Grossmann, O. Ristow, A. Bartels, M. Fischer, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, E. Kapon, T. Dekorsy, “Investigation of coherent acoustic phonons in terahertz quantum cascade laser structures using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 033517 (2012).
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R. Salenbien, R. Cote, J. Goossens, P. Limaye, R. Labie, C. Glorieux, “Laser-based surface acoustic wave dispersion spectroscopy for extraction of thicknesses, depth, and elastic parameters of a subsurface layer: Feasibility study on intermetallic layer structure in integrated circuit solder joint,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093104 (2011).
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M. Hettich, K. Jacob, O. Ristow, C. He, J. Mayer, M. Schubert, V. Gusev, A. Bruchhausen, T. Dekorsy, “Imaging of a patterned and buried molecular layer by coherent acoustic phonon spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191606 (2012).
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T. A. Kelf, W. Hoshii, P. H. Otsuka, H. Sakuma, I. A. Veres, R. M. Cole, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, M. Tomoda, O. Matsuda, O. B. Wright, “Mapping gigahertz vibrations in a plasmonic-phononic crystal,” New J. Phys. 15, 023013 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. Bartels, F. Hudert, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, K. Kohler, “Femtosecond time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy at kilohertz-scan-rates over nanosecond-time-delays without mechanical delay line,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041117 (2006).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. Jiang, S. T. Wong, M. E. Grein, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, “Measuring timing jitter with optical cross correlations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1047–1052 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, H. Schäfer, M. Nagel, C. Janke, A. Bartels, T. Dekorsy, “High-resolution terahertz spectrometer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 159–168 (2011).
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J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

W. Li, S. D. Sharples, R. J. Smith, M. Clark, M. G. Somekh, “Determination of crystallographic orientation of large grain metals with surface acoustic waves,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 738–745 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Valier-Brasier, T. Dehoux, B. Audoin, “Scaled behavior of interface waves at an imperfect solid-solid interface,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 024904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Salenbien, R. Cote, J. Goossens, P. Limaye, R. Labie, C. Glorieux, “Laser-based surface acoustic wave dispersion spectroscopy for extraction of thicknesses, depth, and elastic parameters of a subsurface layer: Feasibility study on intermetallic layer structure in integrated circuit solder joint,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 093104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Dilhaire, G. Pernot, G. Calbris, J. M. Rampnoux, S. Grauby, “Heterodyne picosecond thermoreflectance applied to nanoscale thermal metrology,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 114314 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified scheme of the dual-oscillator system. The fast photodiode PD1 (resp. PD2), associated to the low-pass filter LPF1 (resp. LPF2), monitors the fundamental repetition rate frep,1 (resp. frep,2) of the master laser (resp. slave laser). The frequency synthesizer generates an up-shifted frequency frep,1 + Δf. The amplified phase detector output controls the piezoelectric transducer (PZT) voltage to adjust the slave cavity length in order to fulfill the condition frep,2 = frep,1 + Δf.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the correlator used for measurements of the pulses duration and of the relative timing jitter. The half-wave plate (HWP) and the polarizing beamsplitter (PBS) allow to inject half of the power of the two orthogonally polarized lasers (p-polarized pump pulses and s-polarized probe pulses) in each arm of the correlator. The optical path difference LaLb between both arms is denoted ΔL and is controlled by a retroreflector mounted on a motorized translation stage. After two passages through the quarter-wave plates (QWP), each beam has its polarization 90°-rotated and is directed towards a GaAsP two-photon absorption photodiode (TPA-PD). Photons energy (1.20eV) is below the 1.83eV-gap of GaAsP. This photodiode thus generates a transient electric signal each time it absorbs simultaneously two pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured relative timing jitter between pump and probe pulses versus pump-probe delay for Δf = 500Hz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Asynchronous pump-probe opto-acoustic imaging setup. The transient signal generated on the TPA-PD is used as a trigger signal for the transient reflectivity acquisition. BS: beamsplitter, PD: amplified silicon photodiode. (b) Structure of the sample studied: an opto-acoustic point source is generated at the free surface of a thin tungsten layer supported by a (100)-silicon substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raw temporal signal at the epicenter over the first 10 ns. High frequency acoustic echoes as well as low frequency surface acoustic waves are clearly visible. The signal is only displayed up to 10 ns since acoustic features are located in the first nanoseconds after the coincidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatially resolved ΔR/R at four different pump-probe delays τ (81 ps, 92 ps, 99 ps and 107 ps) temporally centered on the first acoustic echoe. ΔR/R = 0 corresponds to the red level.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spatially resolved ΔR/R, in arbitrary units, at four different pump-probe delays τ (2900 ps, 5000 ps, 8000 ps and 14000 ps). ΔR/R = 0 corresponds to the orange level. Two SAWs are clearly distinguished on the snapshot at τ = 8000ps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Acoustic signature of the high frequency bulk acoustic wave inside the thin film on the transient reflectivity ΔR/R. The transient signals occurring at regular time intervals correspond to acoustic echoes detected at the free surface of the thin film. The temporal resolution is equal to 1 ps. (b) Spectrum of the transient reflectivity presented in panel (a) exhibiting a broad spectral content up to ≈ 150GHz. The spectral resolution is equal to 48 MHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dynamics of the xy in-plane derivatives of the normal displacement of the surface film for 14 pump-probe distances. The value of each pump-probe distance is indicated in blue above each curve. Continuous black curves (resp. red dotted curves) correspond to experimental (resp. calculated) normalized signals. All curves have been vertically upshifted for the sake of clarity. The fastest SAW is a surface skimming longitudinal wave (SSLW) and the slowest and strongly dispersive SAW is a pseudo Rayleigh wave (PRW).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Experimentally deduced group velocity dispersion of the PRW. (b) Experimental (red dots, same data than in panel (a)) and calculated (blue open circles) dispersion of the group velocity of the PRW. A minimum in the group velocity is clearly visible close to 1.2 GHz. Dashed line: Rayleigh wave velocity at the free surface of a tungsten half-space.

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