Abstract

We present the characterization of two-dimensionally arranged 64-pixel NbTiN superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array for spatially resolved photon detection. NbTiN films deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates enabled the high-yield production of high-quality SSPD pixels, and all 64 SSPD pixels showed uniform superconducting characteristics within the small range of 7.19–7.23 K of superconducting transition temperature and 15.8–17.8 μA of superconducting switching current. Furthermore, all of the pixels showed single-photon sensitivity, and 60 of the 64 pixels showed a pulse generation probability higher than 90% after photon absorption. As a result of light irradiation from the single-mode optical fiber at different distances between the fiber tip and the active area, the variations of system detection efficiency (SDE) in each pixel showed reasonable Gaussian distribution to represent the spatial distributions of photon flux intensity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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2014

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, W. Sun, Q. Zhou, J. Campbell, X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, “Improved sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16716–16721 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

2009

Z. Wang, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information and communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1741–1747 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allacher, A.

Anant, V.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asai, T.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benichi, H.

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

Campbell, J.

Chen, S.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dane, A. E.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Domeki, T.

Dorenbos, S. D.

Dorenbos, S. N.

Dynes, J. F.

Dzardanov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information and communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1741–1747 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gemmell, N. R.

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

He, Y.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Horansky, R.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, R.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, H.

Itzler, M. A.

Jiang, X.

Jin, R.

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

Koashi, M.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

Krichel, N. J.

Kusaka, Y.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Länger, T.

Legré, M.

Lipatov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, D.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

Makise, K.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, M.

Maurhart, O.

McCarthy, A.

Miki, S.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information and communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1741–1747 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mirin, R. P.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, L.

Najafi, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. W.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

Okunev, O.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Page, J.-B.

Patterson, M. S.

Peev, M.

Poppe, A.

Ren, X.

Ribordy, G.

Robinson, B. S.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robyr, S.

Rosenberg, D.

Rosfjord, K. M.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

Sasaki, M.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

Shaw, M. D.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

Shimizu, K.

Shimizu, R.

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stern, J. A.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

Tajima, A.

Takahashi, S.

Takeoka, M.

Takesue, H.

Tamaki, K.

Tanaka, A.

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, T.

Tokura, Y.

Tomita, A.

Trinkler, P.

Tsurumaru, T.

Uchikoga, S.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Verma, V. B.

V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wakui, K.

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information and communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1741–1747 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Xie, X.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
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R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
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K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Crosstalk-free operation of multi-element SSPD array integrated with SFQ circuit in a 0.1 W GM cryocooler,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2982–2984 (2012).
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H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
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S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
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M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
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E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Zeilinger, A.

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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Zwiller, V.

AIP Adv.

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, H. Terai, T. Yamashita, K. Makise, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with single flux quantum readout circuits in a cryocooler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 111108 (2011).
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V. B. Verma, R. Horansky, F. Marsili, J. A. Stern, M. D. Shaw, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, “A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051115 (2014).
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Z. Wang, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information and communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1741–1747 (2009).
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S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, B. S. Robinson, A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, K. K. Berggren, “Multi-Element Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 279–284 (2007).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Parallel bias and readout techniques toward realization of large-scale SSPD array with SFQ circuit,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23(3), 2500804 (2013).
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Nano Lett.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Terai, T. Yamashita, S. Miki, K. Makise, Z. Wang, “Low-jitter single flux quantum signal readout from superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20115–20123 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, W. Sun, Q. Zhou, J. Campbell, X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, “Improved sinusoidal gating with balanced InGaAs/InP single photon avalanche diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16716–16721 (2013).
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T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
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Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Ikuta, H. Kato, Y. Kusaka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, M. Fujiwara, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, N. Imoto, “High-fidelity conversion of photonic quantum information to telecommunication wavelength with superconducting single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 010301 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, K. Wakui, R. Shimizu, H. Benichi, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, Z. Wang, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, “Nonclassical interference between independent intrinsically pure single photons at telecommunication wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 87(6), 063801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. D. Shaw, J. A. Stern, K. Birnbaum, M. Srinivasan, M. Cheng, K. Quirk, A. Biswas, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, R. P. Mirin, S. W. Nam, and W. H. Farr, “Tungsten Silicide Superconducting Nanowire Arrays for the Lunar Laser OCTL Terminal,” in CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, Optics InfoBase Conference Papers (2013), paper QM4L.7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of 64-pixel NbTiN SSPD array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of chip-mounting block for 64-pixel SSPD array. (b) Schematic drawing of positional relationship between 64-pixel SSPD array, single-mode optical fiber, and illuminated light from the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of (a) Tc and (b) Isw for the 64 NbTiN nanowire pixels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SDE as a function of bias current for the 64 NbTiN nanowire pixels at Lfiber-sspd of 3 mm. (b) Histogram of Ppulse,max for the 64 NbTiN nanowire pixels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The color maps of SDEasymp over 64 pixels when Lfiber-sspd is (a) 3 mm and (b) 470 μm. (c) Fitting data of Gaussian function from the results at Lfiber-sspd of 470 μm by means of the method of least squares.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The color maps of the SDE and histograms of Ppulse at Lfiber-sspd at 470 μm at constant bias currents (Ib) of (a) 15.0, (b) 15.5, (c) 16.0, and (d) 16.5 μA, respectively. The diagonal-lined pixels and bars in the figures indicate the nanowire pixels that could not operate due to locking into a resistive state. The mean values μ and μ', and standard deviations σ and σ' are shown in each histogram; those are taken by excluding (μ, σ) and including (μ', σ') disabled pixels, respectively.

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