Abstract

We report low-loss deep-etch AlGaAs optical waveguides fabricated with nitrogen plasma-assisted photoresist reflow. The simultaneous application of a nitrogen plasma and heat is used to reduce the line edge roughness of patterned photoresist and limit the lateral spread of the photoresist patterns of submicron-scale waveguides. Comparison of the edge roughness of the etched sidewalls between the as-developed and smoothed photoresist etch samples show a reduction of the RMS roughness from 3.39±0.17 nm to 1.39±0.03 nm. The reduction in propagation loss is verified by measured waveguide loss as a function of waveguide widths. A 0.65-μm wide waveguide with a modal area of 0.4 μm2 is fabricated with a propagation loss as low as 1.20±0.13 dB/cm for the transverse-electric mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
  2. G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, “Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 19, 12440–12455 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Meier, W. S. Mohammed, A. Jugessur, L. Qian, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, “Group velocity inversion in AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 15, 12755–12762 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, N. Dagli, “Propagation loss study of very compact GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 3390–3395 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, O. Paintera, “Beyond the rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13, 1515–1530 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer micro-ring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19, 861–869 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. D. Popovic, R. A. Sprague, G. A. N. Connell, “Technique for monolithic fabrication of microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1281–1288 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1423–1431 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Barwicz, H. A. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2719–2732 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Lacava, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, M. Sorel, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear properties of AlGaAs waveguides in continuous wave operation regime,” Opt. Express 22, 5291–5297 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).
  21. K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, M. C. Camasta, M. Sorel, “Broadband self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and four-wave mixing in 9-mm-long AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35, 4093–4095 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2011 (4)

T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer micro-ring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19, 861–869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, “Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 19, 12440–12455 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, N. Dagli, “Propagation loss study of very compact GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 3390–3395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1423–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

1994 (1)

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

1989 (1)

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Apiratikul, P.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arnot, H. E. G.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Astar, W.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Azarnouche, L.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Bhat, R.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Camasta, M. C.

Cannon, B. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, S.-L.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Connell, G. A. N.

Cristiani, I.

Dagli, N.

Detemple, T. A.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Dolgaleva, K.

El-Ganainy, R.

Epler, J. E.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Foster, J. R.

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Foucher, J.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graf, B.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graves, D. B.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

Hall, D. C.

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Herzinger, C. M.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Hryniewicz, J. V.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Iwanow, R.

Johnson, T. J.

Joubert, O.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jugessur, A.

Kanakaraju, S.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lacava, C.

Ladouceur, F.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H. W.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. S.

Ling, T.

Lou, Y.

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. C.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Mahmood, B. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

Menguelti, K.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Mohammed, W. S.

Mojahedi, M.

Murphy, T. E.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1423–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. C.

Oehrlein, G. S.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvy, J. A.

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paintera, O.

Pargon, E.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phaneuf, R. J.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z. D.

Pusino, V.

Qian, L.

Richardson, C. J. K.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Senden, T. J.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Siviloglou, G. A.

Sorel, M.

Sprague, R. A.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Suntsov, S.

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Wathen, J. J.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, R.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H. P.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys (1)

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. QuantumElectron. (2)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics