Abstract

We report low-loss deep-etch AlGaAs optical waveguides fabricated with nitrogen plasma-assisted photoresist reflow. The simultaneous application of a nitrogen plasma and heat is used to reduce the line edge roughness of patterned photoresist and limit the lateral spread of the photoresist patterns of submicron-scale waveguides. Comparison of the edge roughness of the etched sidewalls between the as-developed and smoothed photoresist etch samples show a reduction of the RMS roughness from 3.39±0.17 nm to 1.39±0.03 nm. The reduction in propagation loss is verified by measured waveguide loss as a function of waveguide widths. A 0.65-μm wide waveguide with a modal area of 0.4 μm2 is fabricated with a propagation loss as low as 1.20±0.13 dB/cm for the transverse-electric mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

2011

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, “Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 19, 12440–12455 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Ling, S.-L. Chen, L. J. Guo, “Fabrication and characterization of high Q polymer micro-ring resonator and its application as a sensitive ultrasonic detector,” Opt. Express 19, 861–869 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, Y.-C. Chang, N. Dagli, “Propagation loss study of very compact GaAs/AlGaAs substrate removed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 3390–3395 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1423–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

1997

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

1994

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

1989

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Apiratikul, P.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arnot, H. E. G.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Astar, W.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Azarnouche, L.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

Bhat, R.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Camasta, M. C.

Cannon, B. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, S.-L.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Connell, G. A. N.

Cristiani, I.

Dagli, N.

Detemple, T. A.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Dolgaleva, K.

El-Ganainy, R.

Epler, J. E.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Foster, J. R.

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Foucher, J.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graf, B.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graves, D. B.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

Hall, D. C.

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Herzinger, C. M.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Hryniewicz, J. V.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Iwanow, R.

Johnson, T. J.

Joubert, O.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jugessur, A.

Kanakaraju, S.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lacava, C.

Ladouceur, F.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, H. W.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. S.

Ling, T.

Lou, Y.

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. C.

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

Mahmood, B. M.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

Menguelti, K.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

Mohammed, W. S.

Mojahedi, M.

Murphy, T. E.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1423–1431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. C.

Oehrlein, G. S.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvy, J. A.

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Paintera, O.

Pargon, E.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phaneuf, R. J.

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z. D.

Pusino, V.

Qian, L.

Richardson, C. J. K.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Senden, T. J.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Siviloglou, G. A.

Sorel, M.

Sprague, R. A.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. A. Siviloglou, S. Suntsov, R. El-Ganainy, R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in optical AlGaAs nanowires,” Opt. Express 14, 9377–9384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Suntsov, S.

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

Wathen, J. J.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Widmer, R.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H. P.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Pargon, M. Martin, K. Menguelti, L. Azarnouche, J. Foucher, O. Joubert, “Plasma impact on 193 nm photoresist linewidth roughness: Role of plasma vacuum ultraviolet light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Lowloss singlemode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lou, D. C. Hall, “Low-loss nonselectively oxidized Alx Ga1−x As heterostructure waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. E. G. Arnot, H. P. Zappe, J. E. Epler, B. Graf, R. Widmer, H. W. Lehmann, “Extremely smooth sidewalls for GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1131–1133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, T. J. Senden, “Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 242–248 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, B. M. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, “Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 1397–1399 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys

J. A. Ogilvy, J. R. Foster, “Rough surfaces: gaussian or exponential statistics?” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys 22, 1243–1251 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. QuantumElectron.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap,” J. QuantumElectron. 33, 341–348 (1997).

C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. Detemple, “The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,” J. QuantumElectron. 29, 2273–2281 (1993).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

G. S. Oehrlein, R. J. Phaneuf, D. B. Graves, “Plasma-polymer interactions: A review of progress in understanding polymer resist mask durability during plasma etching for nanoscale fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 010801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-section of the 0.65-μm wide AlGaAs waveguide. The superposed contours of the calculated fundamental TE mode is shown in dB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the as-developed photoresist on (a) BARC (b) HMDS, etched waveguides (c) BARC (d) HMDS

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the conventional reflow of photoresist on (a) BARC (b) HMDS, etched waveguides (c) BARC (d) HMDS

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top-down SEM view with a large field of view of an etched waveguide patterned by conventional reflow of photoresist on BARC. The surface undulations are a result of the unrestricted reflow process and result in large optical losses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of the plasma-assisted reflow of photoresist on (a) BARC (b) HMDS, etched waveguides (c) BARC (d) HMDS

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

XPS data showing the (a) increase in oxygen signal measured at the O2 1s region, and (b) incorporation of nitrogen as measured from the N2 1s region of the spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Top down SEM view of the sidewall of AlGaAs waveguides patterned by (a) as-developed photoresist on BARC and (b) plasma-assisted reflowed photoresist on BARC. (c) and (d) show the LER of the sidewall of the waveguides patterned by both photoresist techniques.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of measured propagation loss as a function of waveguide width for waveguides patterned by the as-developed photoresist and by plasma-assisted reflowed photoresist. The solid curves are calculated losses based on the measured RMS roughness and correlation length. The inset shows transmission power fringes of TE-polarized light in a 5-mm long and 0.65-μm wide wageguide patterned by reflowed photoresist.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of propagation losses of AlGaAs waveguides.

Equations (2)

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κ = P max P min P max + P min .
ln [ ( 1 ( 1 κ 2 ) 1 2 / κ ) ] = ln R α L ,

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