Abstract

We report a narrow-ridge interband cascade laser emitting at λ ≈3.5 μm that produces up to 592 mW of cw power with a wallplug efficiency of 10.1% and beam quality factor of M2 = 3.7 at T = 25 °C. A pulsed cavity length study of broad-area lasers from the same wafer confirms that the 7-stage structure with thicker separate confinement layers has a reduced internal loss of ≈3 cm−1. More generally, devices from a large number of wafers with similar 7-stage designs and wavelengths spanning 2.95-4.7 μm exhibit consistently higher pulsed external differential quantum efficiencies than earlier state-of-the-art ICLs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Weih, A. Bauer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with AlGaAsSb bulk cladding layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1624–1631 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. von Edlinger, J. Scheuermann, R. Weih, L. Naehle, C. Zimmermann, L. Hildebrandt, M. Fischer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and J. Koeth, “DFB interband cascade lasers for tunable laser absorption spectroscopy from 3 to 6μm”, SPIE Photonics West (San Francisco, 2–6 February 2014).
  5. R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, A. Bauer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with AlGaAsSb bulk cladding layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1624–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, R. E.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A.

Belenky, G.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J. L.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, J. D.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Canedy, C. L.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Felix, C. L.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Höfling, S.

R. Weih, A. Bauer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with AlGaAsSb bulk cladding layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1624–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jurkovic, M. J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

R. Weih, A. Bauer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with AlGaAsSb bulk cladding layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1624–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D. C.

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lascola, K. M.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, C. D.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nolde, J. A.

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J. T.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suchalkin, S.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Towner, F. J.

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power room-temperature continuous-wave mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20894–20901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weih, R.

R. Weih, A. Bauer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with AlGaAsSb bulk cladding layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(10), 1624–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade laser emitting at λ = 3.75 μm in continuous wave above room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 191110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, C. L. Canedy, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, M. Kim, “High-power, high-brightness continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with tapered ridges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Weih, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers with room-temperature threshold current densities below 100 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(23), 231123 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. L. Canedy, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “Broad-stripe, single-mode, mid-IR interband cascade laser with photonic-crystal distributed-feedback grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1200210 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, R. E. Bartolo, C. L. Felix, M. J. Jurkovic, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, H. Lee, R. U. Martinelli, “Far-field characteristics of mid-IR angled-grating distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(12), 6997–7005 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infrared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. P. Leavitt, J. D. Bruno, J. L. Bradshaw, K. M. Lascola, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, S. Suchalkin, G. Belenky, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. R. Meyer, “High performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns,” Proc. SPIE 8277, 82771E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. von Edlinger, J. Scheuermann, R. Weih, L. Naehle, C. Zimmermann, L. Hildebrandt, M. Fischer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and J. Koeth, “DFB interband cascade lasers for tunable laser absorption spectroscopy from 3 to 6μm”, SPIE Photonics West (San Francisco, 2–6 February 2014).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pulsed single-facet differential slope efficiencies above threshold for 5-stage (red) and 7-stage (blue) ICLs with both the baseline SCL thickness (500 nm, open points) and thicker SCLs (700-800 nm, filled points). All characterizations with pulse length 175 ns and repetition frequency 5 kHz were performed on standard broad-area test structures with 150 μm ridge width, 2 mm cavity length, and uncoated facets. With other design parameters held nearly fixed, results were nominally independent of emission wavelength between 3.2 μm and 3.9 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulsed external differential quantum efficiencies per stage (from 2 uncoated facets) at 300 K for broad-area lasers processed from wafers employing several generations of ICL designs. Gen0 devices (red circles) were designed and grown in 2008, Gen1 (green triangles) in 2008-2010, Gen2 (magenta triangles) in 2010, Gen3 (incorporating carrier rebalancing, blue boxes) beginning at the end of 2010, and Gen3B (wine stars) employing 7 stages and thicker SCLs in 2012-2013. The open blue stars are hybrid designs employing 5 stages with thicker SCLs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra at T = 25°C for three CW injection currents. Using the centroid wavelength and the 2.3 nm/°C wavelength shift for the same device operated in pulsed mode, the temperature rise in the active region was estimated to be ≈36°C for a current of 1.4 A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CW L-I characteristics for a series of temperatures in the range T = 15-70 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wallplug efficiency at T = 25 °C as a function of CW injection current for the 7-stage narrow ridge (blue curve), along with the corresponding dependence for an earlier 5-stage ICL (red dashed curve) [10].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Far-field emission profiles at T = 25 °C for the 7-stage narrow ridge at three cw injection currents. The extracted M2 values are discussed in the text.

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