Abstract

Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Sanchez del Rio, L. Alianelli, “Aspherical lens shapes for focusing synchrotron beams,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(3), 366–374 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, J. W. L. Pang, “The Race to X-ray Microbeam and Nanobeam Science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. Barrett, I. Pape, A. M. Malik, M. C. Wilson, “High efficiency nano-focusing kinoform optics for synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11120–11127 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Richley, O. J. L. Fox, M. N. R. Ashfold, Y. A. Mankelevich, “Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 063307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

P. W. May, Y. A. Mankelevich, “From ultrananocrystalline diamond to single crystal diamond growth in hot filament and microwave plasma-enhanced CVD reactors: a unified model for growth rates and grain sizes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12432–12441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Butler, I. Oleynik, “A mechanism for crystal twinning in the growth of diamond by chemical vapour deposition,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 366(1863), 295–311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. G. Schroer, B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, J. M. Ablett, A. Stein, C. C. Kao, D. M. Tennant, F. Klemens, A. Taylor, C. Jacobsen, P. L. Gammel, H. Huggins, G. Bogart, S. Ustin, L. Ocola, “Single-element elliptical hard x-ray micro-optics,” Opt. Express 11(8), 919–926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ribbing, B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, “Microstructured diamond X-ray source and refractive lens,” Diamond Related Materials 12(10-11), 1793–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation X-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ablett, J. M.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, J. M. Ablett, A. Stein, C. C. Kao, D. M. Tennant, F. Klemens, A. Taylor, C. Jacobsen, P. L. Gammel, H. Huggins, G. Bogart, S. Ustin, L. Ocola, “Single-element elliptical hard x-ray micro-optics,” Opt. Express 11(8), 919–926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alianelli, L.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Sanchez del Rio, L. Alianelli, “Aspherical lens shapes for focusing synchrotron beams,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(3), 366–374 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. Barrett, I. Pape, A. M. Malik, M. C. Wilson, “High efficiency nano-focusing kinoform optics for synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11120–11127 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aristov, V.

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aristov, V. V.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

J. C. Richley, O. J. L. Fox, M. N. R. Ashfold, Y. A. Mankelevich, “Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 063307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, R.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. Barrett, I. Pape, A. M. Malik, M. C. Wilson, “High efficiency nano-focusing kinoform optics for synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11120–11127 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bogart, G.

Boye, P.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozovic, N.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budai, J. D.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, J. W. L. Pang, “The Race to X-ray Microbeam and Nanobeam Science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. E.

J. E. Butler, I. Oleynik, “A mechanism for crystal twinning in the growth of diamond by chemical vapour deposition,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 366(1863), 295–311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cammarata, M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cederström, B.

C. Ribbing, B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, “Microstructured diamond X-ray source and refractive lens,” Diamond Related Materials 12(10-11), 1793–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation X-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Michiel, M.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dolbnya, I. P.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drakopoulos, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, J. M. Ablett, A. Stein, C. C. Kao, D. M. Tennant, F. Klemens, A. Taylor, C. Jacobsen, P. L. Gammel, H. Huggins, G. Bogart, S. Ustin, L. Ocola, “Single-element elliptical hard x-ray micro-optics,” Opt. Express 11(8), 919–926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Färm, E.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J. M.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feste, S.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, O. J. L.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Richley, O. J. L. Fox, M. N. R. Ashfold, Y. A. Mankelevich, “Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 063307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freund, A. K.

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation X-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritz, D. M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gammel, P. L.

Garrett, R.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, M.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gentle, I.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gessner, T.

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorelick, S.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoriev, M.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, M. V.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunzler, T. F.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guzenko, V. A.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holt, M. V.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, R.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoszowska, J.

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation X-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huggins, H.

Hunger, U. T.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ice, G. E.

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, J. W. L. Pang, “The Race to X-ray Microbeam and Nanobeam Science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isakovic, A. F.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, C.

Jefimovs, K.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, D. W. K.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

Kaulich, B.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, F.

Kohn, V.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korsunsky, A. M.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kouznetsov, S.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Küchler, M.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmann, M.

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S.

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S. M.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loader, I. M.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundqvist, M.

C. Ribbing, B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, “Microstructured diamond X-ray source and refractive lens,” Diamond Related Materials 12(10-11), 1793–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malik, A. M.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susini, J.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sychov, I.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, J. M. Ablett, A. Stein, C. C. Kao, D. M. Tennant, F. Klemens, A. Taylor, C. Jacobsen, P. L. Gammel, H. Huggins, G. Bogart, S. Ustin, L. Ocola, “Single-element elliptical hard x-ray micro-optics,” Opt. Express 11(8), 919–926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennant, D. M.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, J. M. Ablett, A. Stein, C. C. Kao, D. M. Tennant, F. Klemens, A. Taylor, C. Jacobsen, P. L. Gammel, H. Huggins, G. Bogart, S. Ustin, L. Ocola, “Single-element elliptical hard x-ray micro-optics,” Opt. Express 11(8), 919–926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiwari, M. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tümmler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ustin, S.

van der Hart, A.

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E. I.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walton, R. D.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren, J. B.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. C.

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, R. Barrett, I. Pape, A. M. Malik, M. C. Wilson, “High efficiency nano-focusing kinoform optics for synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11120–11127 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winarski, R. P.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yunkin, V.

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yunkin, V. A.

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, J. Patommel, U. T. Hunger, T. F. Gunzler, O. Kurapova, S. Feste, M. Drakopoulos, A. Somogyi, A. S. Simionovici, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, C. Schug, W. H. Schroder, “Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1485–1487 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, R. P. Winarski, M. V. Holt, J. Maser, C. Liu, R. Conley, S. Vogt, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, “Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lens with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058–4060 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

C. Ribbing, B. Cederström, M. Lundqvist, “Microstructured diamond X-ray source and refractive lens,” Diamond Related Materials 12(10-11), 1793–1799 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, P. W. May, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, “A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Richley, O. J. L. Fox, M. N. R. Ashfold, Y. A. Mankelevich, “Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 063307 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. M. Malik, O. J. L. Fox, L. Alianelli, A. M. Korsunsky, R. Stevens, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, I. Pape, K. J. S. Sawhney, P. W. May, “Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 23(12), 125018 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. W. May, Y. A. Mankelevich, “From ultrananocrystalline diamond to single crystal diamond growth in hot filament and microwave plasma-enhanced CVD reactors: a unified model for growth rates and grain sizes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(32), 12432–12441 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, R. Hoppe, C. G. Schroer, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, A. van der Hart, M. Küchler, “Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses: Fabrication and modeling,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 186, 012063 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (5)

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, A. M. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation X-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, J. Tümmler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sanchez del Rio, L. Alianelli, “Aspherical lens shapes for focusing synchrotron beams,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 19(3), 366–374 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

O. Kurapova, B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Küchler, T. Gessner, A. van der Hart, “Optimized fabrication of silicon nanofocusing x-ray lenses using deep reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(5), 1626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy X-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. V. Aristov, M. V. Grigoriev, S. M. Kuznetsov, L. G. Shabelnikov, V. A. Yunkin, M. Hoffmann, E. Voges, “X-ray focusing by planar parabolic refractive lenses made of silicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 33–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

J. E. Butler, I. Oleynik, “A mechanism for crystal twinning in the growth of diamond by chemical vapour deposition,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 366(1863), 295–311 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, D. M. Tennant, “Using compound kinoform hard-x-ray lenses to exceed the critical angle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(26), 264801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. A. Snigirev, V. Yunkin, I. Snigireva, M. Di Michiel, M. Drakopoulos, S. Kouznetsov, L. Shabel’nikov, M. Grigoriev, V. Ralchenko, I. Sychov, M. Hoffmann, E. I. Voges, “Diamond refractive lens for hard X-ray focusing,” Proc. SPIE 4783, 1–9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci. Rep. 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. E. Ice, J. D. Budai, J. W. L. Pang, “The Race to X-ray Microbeam and Nanobeam Science,” Science 334(6060), 1234–1239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

O. J. L. Fox, J. O. P. Holloway, G. M. Fuge, P. W. May, and M. N. R. Ashfold, “Electrospray Deposition of Diamond Nanoparticle Nucleation Layers for Subsequent CVD Diamond Growth,” MRS Proceedings, 1203, 1203–J17–27 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the CRL design showing two arrays of N = 14 concave surfaces with radius of curvature R and focusing the incident beam with a focal length f. (b) SEM image of part of a CRL chip showing two further lens arrays designed to focus x-ray radiation of different wavelengths. (c) Wide-angle image from B16 beamline detector showing the line focus from the CRL and associated scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tilted-SEM images showing diamond CRL structures with increasing magnification from (a) to (d). The absence of extraneous structures around the lenses is apparent in (a) and (b) and the remarkable form fidelity of the silicon-diamond transfer molding process is clear in (c) and (d), where the scalloped surface deriving from the silicon etch is observed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nanofocusing setup on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source showing the x-ray beam propagating from left to right, the CRL mounted in vertical orientation, mounting for the 30 µm anti-scatter aperture and the gold-wire knife-edge situated on positioning stages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focusing results for 4 CRL lenses on the B16 beamline made using a gold-wire knife-edge method. Plots show normalized intensity measured by the detector (black dots) and Lorentzian fitting curves of the derivative (i.e. the beam profile; red line) for (a) NCD lens at E = 11 keV and low-coupling mode, (b) MCD lens at E = 15 keV and low-coupling mode, (c) MCD lens at E = 15 keV and normal-coupling mode and (d) MCD lens at E = 15 keV with anti-scatter aperture and normal-coupling mode. Illuminated apertures (xA × yA) were (a) 20 × 80 µm, (b) 30 × 80 µm, (c) 20 × 80 µm and (d) 35 × 80 µm, where xA is the horizontal aperture and yA is the vertical aperture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and measured lens efficiencies at different vertical apertures (yA) for 4 CRL lenses. (a) NCD lens at E = 11 keV, (b) MCD lens at E = 14 keV, (c) MCD lens at E = 15 keV with and without anti-scatter orifice and (d) MCD lens at E = 19 keV. Horizontal aperture xA = 20 µm. f = 0.06 m for the NCD lens (a) and f = 0.05 m for the MCD lenses (b) – (c). Measured transmission efficiencies are derived from the ratio of focused x-ray intensity to incident flux. Theoretical transmission values assume a diamond density of 3.5 g cm−3. Note the varying scale on the horizontal axis.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of CRL Focusing tests where the Lenses were used to De-Magnify the Bending-magnet Source at B16 in the Vertical Plane

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted Beam Flux after the Nanofocusing Optic for Crossed CRLs on an Undulator Beamline with a Source Intensity of 1 × 1012 Photons s−1 mm−2 and an Illuminated Aperture of 50 × 50 µm based on theoretical and experimental Transmission Measurements in Fig. 5

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=1δ+iβ
δ= f 1 r 0 λ 2 2π N A A ρZ r 0 λ 2 2π N A A ρ.
β= λμ 4π
f= R Nδ
σ diff =1.22 λ NA
NA= A f
σ= σ source q p
1 f = 1 p + 1 q

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