Abstract

The Stokes vector of an optical signal does not depend on its absolute phase; therefore, we can construct the phase-insensitive optical communication system, using the Stokes vector as a modulation parameter. In such a system, multi-level optical signals can effectively be designed in the three-dimensional Stokes space and demodulated either by direct detection or by coherent detection, where low-complexity digital-signal processing (DSP) is employed. Although this system has the disadvantage that adaptive equalizers can hardly be implemented in the digital domain, it is still an attractive solution to large-capacity (≥ 100 Gbit/s) and medium-or short-reach (≤ 100 km) transmission. In this paper, we discuss the receiver configuration for the multi-level signal in the Stokes space and the efficient DSP algorithm for demodulating such a signal. Simulation results demonstrate that 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-ary signals in the Stokes space have good bit-error rate (BER) characteristics. Especially, the 16-ary signal at the moderate symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s can reach the bit rate of 100 Gbit/s even by using direct detection.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. R. Welti, J. S. Lee, “Digital transmission with coherent four-dimensional modulation,” IEEE Trans. on Information Theory IT-20, 497–502 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17, 10814–10819 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. of Light-wave Technol. 27, 5115–5126 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Benedetto, P. T. Poggiolini, “Multilevel polarization shift keying: Optimum receiver structure and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 42, 1174–1186 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comm. 13, 531–541 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift-keying systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 45, 1269–1279 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998).
  12. K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. of Lightwave Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Express 20, 26236–26251 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. of Light-wave Technol. 27, 5115–5126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17, 10814–10819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. of Lightwave Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16, 804–817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift-keying systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 45, 1269–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comm. 13, 531–541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Benedetto, P. T. Poggiolini, “Multilevel polarization shift keying: Optimum receiver structure and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 42, 1174–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1974

G. R. Welti, J. S. Lee, “Digital transmission with coherent four-dimensional modulation,” IEEE Trans. on Information Theory IT-20, 497–502 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abe, J.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agrell, E.

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17, 10814–10819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. of Light-wave Technol. 27, 5115–5126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benedetto, S.

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift-keying systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 45, 1269–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comm. 13, 531–541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, P. T. Poggiolini, “Multilevel polarization shift keying: Optimum receiver structure and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 42, 1174–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Betti, S.

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of polarized light (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998).

Curti, F.

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

De Marchis, G.

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Djupsjöbacka, A.

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fukumitsu, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift-keying systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 45, 1269–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comm. 13, 531–541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, S.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, E.

S. Betti, F. Curti, G. De Marchis, E. Iannone, “Multilevel coherent optical system based on Stokes parameters modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1127–1136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

E. Agrell, M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. of Light-wave Technol. 27, 5115–5126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Karlsson, E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?,” Opt. Express 17, 10814–10819 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, K.

Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Express 20, 26236–26251 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Express 8, 1642–1662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. of Lightwave Technol. 26, 1817–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kisaka, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Komaki, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lagerström, B.

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

G. R. Welti, J. S. Lee, “Digital transmission with coherent four-dimensional modulation,” IEEE Trans. on Information Theory IT-20, 497–502 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, J.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mijic, G.

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mizuochi, T.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Murata, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishimoto, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, H.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP, ” Opt. Express 19, 13139–13184 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paoletti, R.

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift-keying systems,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 45, 1269–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, “Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas in Comm. 13, 531–541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, A. Djupsjöbacka, B. Lagerström, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, G. Mijic, “Multilevel polarization modulation using a specifically designed LiNbO3 device,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 949–951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P. T.

S. Benedetto, P. T. Poggiolini, “Multilevel polarization shift keying: Optimum receiver structure and performance evaluation,” IEEE Trans. on Comm. 42, 1174–1186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, Y.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Genealogy of optical modulation formats. IQ modulation and four-dimensional modulation are sensitive to the carrier phase. On the other hand, Stokes-vector modulation is independent of the absolute value of the carrier phase.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the signal SOP and the intensity in the Stokes space.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the Stokes-vector modulator. AM: amplitude modulator, PM: phase modulator, λ/2: half-wave plate, and PBC: polarization-beam combiner. Symbols || and ⊥ respectively show parallel and perpendicular linear polarizations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Constellation maps in the Stokes space. We show those of binary, quad, and octal modulation. In addition, S0 can be modulated at the same time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the Stokes analyzer. From the four outputs from PDs, we can determine the Stokes vector using Eqs. (6)(9).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Direct-detection-based receiver for the demodulation of Stokes-vector-modulated signals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coherent-detection-based receiver for the demodulation of Stokes-vector-modulated signals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Probability-density functions for the in-phase and quadrature components of the complex amplitude of the signal. Blue curves are simulation results, and red ones are Gaussian fits to them. Upper figures correspond to the in-phase component, whereas the lower figures to the quadrature component. Values of CNR/pol are 7, 10, and 15 dB.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Probability-density functions of Stokes parameters. Blue curves are simulation results for S1, S2, and S3, whereas red ones are Gaussian fits to them. Values of CNR/pol are 7, 10, and 15 dB.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Probability-density functions for Stokes vectors in binary (black curve), quad (blue curve), and octal (red curve) SOP modulation formats along the line connecting two nearest constellation points in each modulation format. The horizontal axis represents the distance along the line where the origin is the center of the segment of the line. The signal amplitude is unity, and CNR/bit/pol is 13 dB in all of the cases.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fluctuations of SOP due to the change in fiber birefringence. SOP is plotted in a symbol-by-symbol manner for N = 220 symbols, when the initial Jones vector is E = [1, 0]T and σ 0 2 = 2 × 10 3 [ rad ].

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

BERs for binary, quad, octal, 16-ary, and 32-ary modulation formats calculated as a function of CNR/bit/pol. The BER curve for the DP-QPSK format is also shown for comparison.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = [ E x E y ]
S 1 = | E x | 2 | E y | 2 ,
S 2 = 2 Re ( E x * E y ) = 2 | E x | | E y | cos δ ,
S 3 = 2 Im ( E x * E y ) = 2 | E x | | E y | sin δ ,
δ = arg ( E y / E x ) .
S 0 = S 1 2 + S 2 2 + S 3 2 = | E x | 2 + | E y | 2 .
S 1 = 2 I x S 0 ,
S 2 = 2 I 45 ° S 0 ,
S 3 = 2 I R S 0 .
A = | E x | 2 + | E y | 2 .
E = A e i ϕ [ cos ( θ 2 ) e i δ sin ( θ 2 ) ] .
S = S 0 [ cos θ sin θ cos δ sin θ sin δ ] ,
v m ( k + 1 ) = v m ( k ) + μ e ( k ) v m ( k ) + μ e ( k ) .
e ( k ) = S ( k ) S 0 ( k ) v m ( k )
E = [ 1 + n x n y ] .
CNR / pol = 1 2 σ 2 .
J = [ e i ϕ r 2 cos ( θ r 2 ) sin ( θ r 2 ) sin ( θ r 2 ) e i ϕ r 2 cos ( θ r 2 ) ] .
ϕ r ( k + 1 ) = ϕ r ( k ) + Δ ϕ r ( k ) ,
θ r ( k + 1 ) = θ r ( k ) + Δ θ r ( k ) ,
σ ( N ) 2 = σ 0 2 N [ rad 2 ] .

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