Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally investigate the effect of imperfect vector symmetry on radially polarized beams focused by an aplanatic solid immersion lens at a numerical aperture of 3.3. We experimentally achieve circularly symmetric focused spot with a full-width-half-maximum of ~λ0/5.7 at λ0 = 1310nm, free-space wavelength. The tight spatial confinement and overall circular symmetry of the focused radially polarized beam are found to be sensitive to perturbations of its cylindrical polarization symmetry. The addition of a liquid crystal based variable retarder to the optical path can effectively ensure the vector symmetry and achieve circularly symmetric focused spots at such high numerical aperture conditions.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2009

S. Ramachandran, P. P. Kristensen, M. F. Yan, “Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2525–2527 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Goh, C. J. R. Sheppard, “High aperture focusing through a spherical interface: Application to refractive solid immersion lens (RSIL) for subsurface imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 1036–1041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lerman, U. Levy, “Effect of radial polarization and apodization on spot size under tight focusing conditions,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4567–4581 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. Köklü, J. I. Quesnel, A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9501–9506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. A. Ahmed, A. Voss, M. M. Vogel, T. Graf, “Multilayer polarizing grating mirror used for the generation of radial polarization in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3272–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

S. F. Pereira, A. S. van de Nes, “Superresolution by means of polarisation, phase and amplitude pupil masks,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 119–124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, “Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution,” Appl. Opt. 43(22), 4322–4327 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

L. Novotny, R. D. Grober, K. Karrai, “Reflected image of a strongly focused spot,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 789–791 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1990

S. M. Mansfield, G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1959

E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems I. An integral representation of the image field,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 349–357 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, K.

Ahmed, M. A.

Atatüre, M.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

Bifano, T.

Chen, R.

Chen, X.

Chong, C. T.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreiser, J.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, J.

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghalmi, S.

Goh, S. H.

S. H. Goh, C. J. R. Sheppard, “High aperture focusing through a spherical interface: Application to refractive solid immersion lens (RSIL) for subsurface imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 1036–1041 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

Y. Lu, T. Bifano, S. Unlü, B. B. Goldberg, “Aberration compensation in aplanatic solid immersion lens microscopy,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28189–28197 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. Köklü, J. I. Quesnel, A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9501–9506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yurt, M. D. W. Grogan, S. Ramachandran, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Vortex beams in the vectorial focusing regime,” Opt. Lett. (submitted to).

Golowich, S.

Graf, T.

Grober, R. D.

Grogan, M. D. W.

A. Yurt, M. D. W. Grogan, S. Ramachandran, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Vortex beams in the vectorial focusing regime,” Opt. Lett. (submitted to).

Gu, M.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, B. Jia, M. Gu, “Generation of an axially super-resolved quasi-spherical focal spot using an amplitude-modulated radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2471–2473 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, S.

Ichimura, I.

Imamoglu, A.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippolito, S. B.

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Karrai, K.

Kino, G. S.

Köklü, F. H.

Kozawa, Y.

Kristensen, P. P.

Lan, T.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

Lerman, G. M.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, U.

Li, X.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.

Lu, Y.

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, S. M.

S. M. Mansfield, G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Novotny, L.

Pereira, S. F.

S. F. Pereira, A. S. van de Nes, “Superresolution by means of polarisation, phase and amplitude pupil masks,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 119–124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phang, J. C. H.

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quesnel, J. I.

Ramachandran, S.

Ramsay, E.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Serrels, K. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shi, L.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stranick, S. J.

Swan, A. K.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tien, C.-H.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unlü, S.

Ünlü, M. S.

F. H. Köklü, J. I. Quesnel, A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9501–9506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yurt, M. D. W. Grogan, S. Ramachandran, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Vortex beams in the vectorial focusing regime,” Opt. Lett. (submitted to).

Vamivakas, A. N.

F. H. Köklü, J. I. Quesnel, A. N. Vamivakas, S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9501–9506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Nes, A. S.

S. F. Pereira, A. S. van de Nes, “Superresolution by means of polarisation, phase and amplitude pupil masks,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 119–124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, M. M.

Voss, A.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. J.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wisk, P.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems I. An integral representation of the image field,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 253(1274), 349–357 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Yilmaz, S. T.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurt, A.

A. Yurt, M. D. W. Grogan, S. Ramachandran, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “Vortex beams in the vectorial focusing regime,” Opt. Lett. (submitted to).

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, J. R. Leger, “Microellipsometer with radial symmetry,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4630–4637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photonics

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. M. Mansfield, G. S. Kino, “Solid immersion microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(24), 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, “High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoǧlu, M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

X. Li, T.-H. Lan, C.-H. Tien, M. Gu, “Three-dimensional orientation-unlimited polarization encryption by a single optically configured vectorial beam,” Nat. Commun. 3, 998 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

H. Wang, L. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9(3), 78 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

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