Abstract

Low-threshold, gain switched colloidal quantum dot (CQD) distributed-feedback lasers operating in the nanosecond regime are reported and proposed for sensing applications for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. The lasers are based on a mechanically-flexible polymeric, second order grating structure overcoated with a thin-film of CQD/PMMA composite. The threshold fluence of the resulting lasers is as low as 0.5 mJ/cm2 for a 610 nm emission and the typical linewidth is below 0.3 nm. The emission wavelength of the lasers can be set at the design stage and laser operation between 605 nm and 616 nm, while using the exact same CQD gain material, is shown. In addition, the potential of such CQD lasers for refractive index sensing in solution is demonstrated by immersion in water.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 tin films: design and guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, “Sensitive explosive vapor detection with polyfluorene lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2093–2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, M. Luberto, N. V. Valappil, S. Chatterjee, “Lasing from InGaP quantum dots in a spin-coated flexible microcavity,” Opt. Express 16, 19535–19540 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, V. I. Klimov, “From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G.

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

amd, L. T.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M G.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, V. I. Klimov, “From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boucher, Y.

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozio, R.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Breen, C.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M. P.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brusatin, G.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burley, G. A.

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cauchi, S.

Chae, J.

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chanyawadee, S.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, S.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. S.

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. L.

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clark, S. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coe-Sullivan, S.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collini, E.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, Y.

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dang, C.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, M. D.

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

deng, T.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deryagin, A.

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdem, T.

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eroglu, C.

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T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
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Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
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V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
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E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
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Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 tin films: design and guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
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Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, “Sensitive explosive vapor detection with polyfluorene lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2093–2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

Schafer, J.

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, V. K.

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Signorini, R.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skabara, P. J.

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L. C.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 tin films: design and guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sokolovskii, G.

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steckel, J. S.

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhovatkin, V.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sundar, V. C.

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Susha, A. S.

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Todescato, F.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Toffanin, S.

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, “Sensitive explosive vapor detection with polyfluorene lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2093–2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unal, E.

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valappil, N. V.

Vannahme, C.

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 tin films: design and guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, “Sensitive explosive vapor detection with polyfluorene lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2093–2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Func. Mater. (1)

F. Todescato, I. Fortunati, S. Gardin, E. Garbin, E. Collini, R. Bozio, J. J. Jasieniak, G. D. Giustina, G. Brusatin, S. Toffanin, R. Signorini, “Soft-lithographed up-converted distributed feedback visible lasers based on CdSe-CdZnS-ZnS quantum dots,” Adv. Func. Mater. 22, 337–344 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, “Sensitive explosive vapor detection with polyfluorene lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2093–2097 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

V. C. Sundar, H. J. Eisler, T. deng, Y. Chan, L. T. amd, M G. Bawendi, “Soft-lithographically embossed multilayered distributed feedback nanocrystal lasers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2137–2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, M. D. B. Charlton, D. V. Talapin, H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, “Increased color-conversion efficiency in hybrid light-emitting diodes utilizing non-radiative energy transfer,” Adv. Mater. 22, 602–606 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, V. I. Klimov, “From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystals emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Zhang, A. R. Mackintosh, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, N. Laurand, M. D. Dawson, “Flexible distributed-feedback colloidal quantum dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

Y. Tan, C. Ge, A. Chu, M. Lu, W. Goldshlag, C. S. Huang, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, B. T. Cunningham, “Plastic-based distributed feedback laser biosensors in microplate format,” IEEE Sensors J. 12, 1174–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef]

JACS (1)

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe–ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an enginneered recombinant protein,” JACS 122, 12142–12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. Vannahme, M. C. Leung, F. Richter, C. L. C. Smith, P. G. Hermannsson, A. Kristensen, “Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 tin films: design and guidelines for high performance sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

E. Mutlugun, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, C. Eroglu, Y. Coskun, T. Erdem, V. K. Sharma, E. Unal, S. K. Panda, S. G. Hickey, N. Gaponik, H. V. A. Eychmller, “Large-are (over 50cm × 50cm) freestanding films of colloidal InP–ZnS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 12, 3986–3993 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schafer, J. P. Mondia, R. Sharma, Z. H. Lu, A. S. Susha, A. L. Rogach, L. J. Wang, “Quantum dot microdrop laser,” Nano Lett. 8, 1709–1712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

Y. Boucher, A. Deryagin, V. Kuchinskii, G. Sokolovskii, “Near-threshold spectral and modal characterisitics of a curved-grating quantum well distributed feedback,” Nanotechnology 14, 615–618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rose, Z. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, V. Bulovic, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature 434, 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Nanotechnology (1)

C. Dang, J. Lee, C. Breen, J. S. Steckel, S. Coe-Sullivan, A. Nurmikko, “Red, green and blue lasing enabled by single-exciton gain in colloidal quantum dot films,” Nature Nanotechnology 7, 335–339 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (2)

Q. Sun, Y. Wang, L. S. Li, D. Wang, T. Zhu, J. Xu, C. Yang, Y. Li, “Bright, multicoloured light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature Photon. 1, 717–722 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Kim, K. S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nature Photon. 5, 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (3)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. J. Eisler, M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission of nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300, 1434–1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (1)

A. M. Haughey, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Burley, M. D. Dawson, N. Laurand, “An organic semiconductor laser based on star-shaped truxene-core oligomers for refractive index sensing,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 185, 132–139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic of a DFB laser based on a second order grating, b) the effective refractive index of the modes plotted against the thickness of a film of refractive index 1.8. For thicknesses between 130 nm and 160 nm, only the TE0 mode can oscillate, c) Normalised TE 0 mode profile for a film thickness of 160 nm matching the propagation condition indicated in b) by the circle (neff ∼1.566).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopy images showing the edge of a representative cleaved film of CQD/PMMA composite on a Si/SiO2 substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Optical pumping setup for amplified spontaneous emission, b) edge of the film under nanosecond excitation in the stimulated emission regime as seen by the collecting optical fiber (scale bar is 0.4 mm), c) schematic of DFB laser characterisation, d) DFB laser under optical pumping (dichroic mirror removed) (scale bar is 10 mm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Top and edge micro-photoluminescence spectra under 371 nm optical excitation of core/shell CQDs dispersed at a concentration of 50 mg/mL in a PMMA solution at 1.6 mg/mL. The sample was processed by spin-coating on a silica substrate. b) Stimulated emission spectrum of the previous film under nanosecond optical pumping. The dashed line in both figures represents the peak wavelength of the stimulated emission spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Transfer function of the ASE from CQDs/PMMA composite samples spin-coated on glass. These data show different CQD/PMMA w/r combination and how it affects their thresholds. b) Further details on the spectral emission of the ASE peaks for different composition of materials.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DFB laser demonstrations made using a polymer grating of refractive index 1.46 with core/shell CQDs at a concentration of 50 mg/mL in a PMMA host matrix at 1.6 mg/mL (50/1.6 w/r) with periodicity of Λ=390 nm (a and b) and Λ=400 nm (c and d). a) and c) are the power transfer functions and b) and d) are the emission spectra of the DFB lasers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Discrete tuning demonstration of the distributed feedback lasers based on CQD/PMMA gain layer by varying its film thickness or the grating period (390 and 400 nm). The ASE spectrum is plotted alongside to guide the reader for the maximum of the gain spectrum. b) Summary of the measured threshold to the lasing wavelength. The highlighted region is the 1/e2 of the stimulated emission spectrum in the saturated regime. c) Optical pulse duration of the pump and CQD DFB laser.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of reported laser thresholds for devices based on CQDs as the gain material expressed in terms of fluence (top section) and power density (bottom section) against the pump pulse duration. Data shown above represent: VCSEL (diamonds), WGM (triangles), DFB lasers (circles) and this work (stars).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a) Schematic of refractive index sensing of liquid medium using CQD/PMMA DFB lasers, b) bulk refractive index sensing results of deionised water (n≈1.33), c) wavelength and emission intensity of a DFB laser cycled between air and water media.

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