Abstract

We report the first to our knowledge high-energy graphene mode-locked solid-state laser operating in the positive dispersion regime. Pulses with 15.5 nJ energy and 42 nm spectral bandwidth with 0.87 ps duration were obtained at 2.4 μm wavelength. The output can be compressed down to 189 fs. The graphene absorber damage threshold was established at fluence approaching 1 mJ/cm2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Tolstik, I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22, 5564–5571 (2014).
  4. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Sorokin, V. L. Kalashnikov, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, I. T. Sorokina, “Cr4+: YAG chirped-pulse oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10(8), 083022 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2014

2013

2012

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Apolonski, V. L. Kalashnikov, F. Krausz, “High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator in the positive dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3543–3545 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28947–28952 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2008

2007

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1993

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

Apolonski, A.

O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Apolonski, V. L. Kalashnikov, F. Krausz, “High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator in the positive dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3543–3545 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, G.

Brons, J.

Bünting, U.

Chernykh, A.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chong, A.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Emons, M.

Fernández, A.

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W. L.

Grasse, C.

Guelachvili, G.

E. Sorokin, V. L. Kalashnikov, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, I. T. Sorokina, “Cr4+: YAG chirped-pulse oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10(8), 083022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

Kim, J. W.

Krausz, F.

O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Apolonski, V. L. Kalashnikov, F. Krausz, “High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator in the positive dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3543–3545 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lermann, G.

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

Mandon, J.

E. Sorokin, V. L. Kalashnikov, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, I. T. Sorokina, “Cr4+: YAG chirped-pulse oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10(8), 083022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Palmer, G.

Pervak, V.

O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, A. Apolonski, V. L. Kalashnikov, F. Krausz, “High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator in the positive dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3543–3545 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

E. Sorokin, V. L. Kalashnikov, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, I. T. Sorokina, “Cr4+: YAG chirped-pulse oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10(8), 083022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podivilov, E.

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, B.

Pronin, O.

Qian, L. J.

Qu, Z. S.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schaffers, K. I.

Schultze, M.

Sennaroglu, A.

Siegel, M.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Su, L. B.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Tolstik, N.

Verhoef, A.

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Y. G.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Westwig, E.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, J.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Yuan, P.

Zhang, H. J.

Zheng, L. H.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Fernández, A. Verhoef, V. Pervak, G. Lermann, F. Krausz, A. Apolonski, “Generation of 60-nJ sub-40-fs pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate from a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse-oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 395–398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: Theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 83(4), 503–510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett.

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

E. Sorokin, V. L. Kalashnikov, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, I. T. Sorokina, “Cr4+: YAG chirped-pulse oscillator,” New J. Phys. 10(8), 083022 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, ” Energy Scaling of Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Oscillators,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper WE7.

N. Tolstik, I. T. Sorokina, and E. Sorokin, “Watt-level Kerr-Lens Mode-Locked Cr:ZnS Laser at 2.4 μm,” in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTh1H.2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS CPO. FL is the pump focusing lens (f′ = 40 mm), HR are the highly-reflective concave mirrors, CM is the flat chirped mirror, GSA is the graphene-based saturable absorber mirror, OC is the output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Input-output characteristics of graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped pulse oscillator for different output coupling rates. (b) Laser pulse spectra for different output coupling rates at the highest output power. (c) Typical interferometric (above) and intensity (below) autocorrelation trace of the laser pulse

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS CPO with expanded cavity. FL is the pump focusing lens (f′ = 40 mm), HR are the highly-reflective flat and concave mirrors, CM is the flat chirped mirror, GSA is the graphene-based saturable absorber mirror, OC is the output coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser spectrum of graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped pulse oscillator with extended cavity. The high-frequency modulation is due to the intracavity water vapor absorption in the atmosphere [17]. (b) Interferometric autocorrelation of laser pulse from such oscillator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Extracavity compression of the CPO oscillator output. The pulse duration is estimated from the autocorrelation width assuming a sech2 pulse form. (b) Interferometric autocorrelation traces of uncompressed and compressed pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photograph of the damaged beam spot (~120 µm diameter) in the double-layer region. (b) Raman spectra of the beam spot area and the double layer right near the spot.

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