Abstract

We demonstrate a high-energy pulsed Raman fiber laser (RFL) with an emission wavelength of 1.44 μm, corresponding to an absorption peak of water. Microsecond pulses with >20 mJ/pulse and >40 W peak power were generated, well above the threshold for tissue coagulation and ablation. Here, we focus on the optical characterization and optimization of high-energy and high-power RFLs excited by an ytterbium fiber laser, comparing three configurations that use different Raman gain fibers, but all of which were prepared with a one-side opened, free-run mode without output mirrors. We show that the free-run configuration can generate sufficiently high energy without requiring a closed cavity design. Experimental RFL characteristics corresponded well with numerical simulations. We discuss the Stokes beam generation process in our system and loss mechanisms mainly associated with fiber Bragg gratings.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Supradeepa, J. W. Nicholson, “Power scaling of high-efficiency 1.5 μm cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2538–2541 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Turitsyna, S. K. Turitsyn, V. K. Mezentsev, “Numerical investigation of the impact of reflectors on spectral performance of Raman fibre laser,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4469–4477 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, T. Taunay, C. Headley, D. J. DiGiovanni, “Raman fiber laser with 81 W output power at 1480 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3069–3071 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. Feng, L. Taylor, D. Bonaccini Calia, “Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(15), 10927–10932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Marks, J. M. H. Teichman, “Lasers in clinical urology: state of the art and new horizons,” World J. Urol. 25(3), 227–233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, S. K. Turitsyn, “Impact of nonlinear spectral broadening in ultra-long Raman fibre lasers,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16690–16695 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

N. M. Fried, K. E. Murray, “High-power Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, “High-power laser vaporization of the canine prostate using a 110 W Thulium fiber laser at 1.91 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(1), 52–56 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. Burgoyne, N. Godbout, S. Lacroix, “Transient regime in a nth-order cascaded CW Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1019–1024 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Suret, S. Randoux, “Influence of spectral broadening on steady characteristics of Raman fiber lasers: from experiments to questions about validity of usual models,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Rottwitt, J. Bromage, A. J. Stentz, L. Leng, M. E. Lines, H. Smith, “Scaling of the Raman gain coefficient: applications to germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(7), 1652–1662 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation,” Science 220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation,” Science 220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Babin, S. A.

Benavides, O.

L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccini Calia, D.

Bouma, B. E.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromage, J.

Burgoyne, B.

Calia, D. B.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, E. V. Podivilov, “Intensity interactions in cascades of a two-stage Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 226(1-6), 329–335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Cruz-May, L.

L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

DiMarcello, F.

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Fleming, J.

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, K. E. Murray, “High-power Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, “High-power laser vaporization of the canine prostate using a 110 W Thulium fiber laser at 1.91 microm,” Lasers Surg. Med. 36(1), 52–56 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godbout, N.

Goncharov, S. E.

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halpern, E. F.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, P.

Headley, C.

Jang, I.-K.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jillella, P. A.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karalekas, V.

Kurkov, A. S.

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

Lauwers, G. Y.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leng, L.

Lines, M. E.

Marks, A. J.

A. J. Marks, J. M. H. Teichman, “Lasers in clinical urology: state of the art and new horizons,” World J. Urol. 25(3), 227–233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medvedkov, O. I.

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, E. B.

L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Mino-Kenudson, M.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E.

Murray, K. E.

N. M. Fried, K. E. Murray, “High-power Thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, K. F.

Paramonov, V. M.

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, J. A.

R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation,” Science 220(4596), 524–527 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podivilov, E. V.

Randoux, S.

P. Suret, S. Randoux, “Influence of spectral broadening on steady characteristics of Raman fiber lasers: from experiments to questions about validity of usual models,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, “High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 29(13), 1191–1193 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H.

Soroka, A.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Suret, P.

P. Suret, S. Randoux, “Influence of spectral broadening on steady characteristics of Raman fiber lasers: from experiments to questions about validity of usual models,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 201–212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talavera, D. V.

L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

Taylor, L.

Taylor, L. R.

Tearney, G. J.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teichman, J. M. H.

A. J. Marks, J. M. H. Teichman, “Lasers in clinical urology: state of the art and new horizons,” World J. Urol. 25(3), 227–233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R. J.

B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Turitsyna, E. G.

Vakoc, B. J.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. de la Cruz-May, E. B. Mejia, O. Benavides, D. V. Talavera, J. Vasquez-Jimenez, “Exact determination of scaling of the Raman gain efficiency in silica fibers,” Laser Phys. 23(5), 055103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Villiger, M.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yan, M. F.

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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Chen, S. L. Thomsen, R. J. Thomas, A. J. Welch, “Modeling thermal damage in skin from 2000-nm laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064028 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 118001 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

A. S. Kurkov, V. M. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, I. D. Zalevskii, S. E. Goncharov, “Fiber Raman laser at 1450 nm for medical applications,” Laser Phys. 18(11), 1234–1237 (2008).
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Nat. Med. (1)

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I.-K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. J. Marks, J. M. H. Teichman, “Lasers in clinical urology: state of the art and new horizons,” World J. Urol. 25(3), 227–233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

RFL configurations that were tested and numerically simulated. A single-stage Raman fiber medium was used with (a) Corning HI1060 (200 m) and (b) OFS Raman filter fiber (100 m). A cascaded Raman medium of the two fibers was also tested, as shown in (c). Key splice points are indicated as a black dot; MFA: mode-field adapter; FBG: fiber Bragg gratings for wavelengths λi. Output coupling was nominally 96%, via a normal cleaved fiber–air interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RFL output power for the configurations of Fig. 1. Experimental (exp) and calculation (cal) results were compared. Pin and Pout are pulsed peak powers (duty cycle: 1%; repetition rate: 20 Hz).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized spectra at the RFL exit for selected input powers of 25.9 W (left column), 74.2 W (middle), and 121 W (right): HI1060 (200 m) shown in (a)~(c), Raman filter fiber (100 m) in (d)~(f), and cascade (300 m) in (g)~(i), respectively. The experimental peaks are shown as solid black, and the simulation results as dashed bar. The bar width is 20 nm (set for visual guidance only). The horizontal range (1080~1550 nm) is the same for all figures, except (c) (1080~1630 nm) to show the higher-order transition (indicated by arrow).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Longitudinal power profiles at Pin = 121 W (simulation): (a) HI1060 (200 m), (b) Raman filter fiber (100 m), and (c) Cascade (300 m). Solid and dashed lines denote the power profiles of forward- and backward-propagating beams, respectively. In (b), loss due to fiber mode-mismatch was included at the beginning position of the Raman filter fiber at z ~1 m (arrow). Accordingly, the end point of the longitudinal axis was slightly shifted beyond 100 m. In (c), the mismatching point was placed at the junction of two fibers (z = 200 m) (arrow). A net output power of each Stokes beam was obtained by Pi+-Pi-.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulsed waveforms of RFL at several repetition rates: (a) 20 Hz, (b) 50 Hz, and (c) 100 Hz. All waveforms have a fixed duty ratio of 1%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated RFL characteristics of a single-stage Raman filter fiber system (100 m) in which the FBGs are formed directly on the Raman fiber: (a) Total and 1436-nm output powers; (b) Normalized spectra of the Stokes beams at Pin = 121 W; (c) A longitudinal power profile at Pin = 121 W.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A photograph of single-pulse coagulation spots generated on porcine esophagus (ex vivo). The pulse energy at 1436 nm corresponding to each row is denoted on the right; the pulse width was fixed to 900 μs for all cases.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Attenuation Coefficients Used in Calculation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Gain Coefficients Used in Calculation

Equations (9)

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d P 0 d z = { α 0 g 0 , 1 λ 1 λ 0 ( P 1 + + P 1 ) } P 0
± d P 1 ± d z = { α 1 + g 0 , 1 ( P 0 ) g 1 , 2 λ 2 λ 1 ( P 2 + + P 2 ) } P 1 ±
± d P i ± d z = { α i + g i 1 , i ( P i 1 + + P i 1 ) g i , i + 1 λ i + 1 λ i ( P i + 1 + + P i + 1 ) } P i ± ( i = 2 ~ 4 )
± d P 5 ± d z = { α 5 + g 4 , 5 ( P 4 + + P 4 ) } P 5 ±
P i + ( n + 1 ) = P i + ( n ) + { α i + g i 1 , i ( P i 1 + ( n ) + P i 1 ( n ) ) g i , i + 1 λ i + 1 λ i ( P i + 1 + ( n ) + P i + 1 ( n ) ) } P i + ( n ) × Δ z
P i ( 1 ) = P i + ( 1 ) R 0 , i
P i ( n Z ) = P i + ( n Z ) R L , i
P i + ( n + 1 ) = δ m × [ P i + ( n ) + { α i + g i 1 , i ( P i 1 + ( n ) + P i 1 ( n ) ) g i , i + 1 λ i + 1 λ i ( P i + 1 + ( n ) + P i + 1 ( n ) ) } P i + ( n ) × Δ z ]
R 0,i ={ 10.2( P in /180) }× 10 δ i

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