Abstract

Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) can be used as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure measurements. For this purpose, the ability to determine the Bragg peak wavelength with adequate wavelength resolution and accuracy is essential. However, conventional peak detection techniques, such as the maximum detection algorithm, can yield inaccurate and imprecise results, especially when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the wavelength resolution are poor. Other techniques, such as the cross-correlation demodulation algorithm are more precise and accurate but require a considerable higher computational effort. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel fast phase correlation (FPC) peak detection algorithm, which computes the wavelength shift in the reflected spectrum of a FBG sensor. This paper analyzes the performance of the FPC algorithm for different values of the SNR and wavelength resolution. Using simulations and experiments, we compared the FPC with the maximum detection and cross-correlation algorithms. The FPC method demonstrated a detection precision and accuracy comparable with those of cross-correlation demodulation and considerably higher than those obtained with the maximum detection technique. Additionally, FPC showed to be about 50 times faster than the cross-correlation. It is therefore a promising tool for future implementation in real-time systems or in embedded hardware intended for FBG sensor interrogation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

L. Negri, A. Nied, H. Kalinowsky, A. Paterno, “Benchmark of peak detection algorithms in fiber Bragg grating interrogation and a new neural network for its performance improvement,” Sensors 11, 3466–3482 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. C. Eckstein, J. Charonko, “Phase correlation processing for DPIV measurements,” Experiments Fluids 45, 485–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, K. C. Chan, “Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 270, 25–30 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

K. T. Christensen, “On the influence of peak-locking errors on turbulance statistics compared from piv ensembles,” Experiments Fluids 36(3), 484–497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, S. T. Wereley, “A correlation-based continuous window-shift technique to reduce the peak-locking in digital PIV evaluation,” Experiments Fluids 32, 506–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, Y. Liu, D. Zhao, B. Gwandu, F. Floreani, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Dependence of temperature and strain coefficients on fiber grating type and its application to simultaneous temperature and strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 701–703 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High resolution instrumentation system for fiber-Bragg grating aerospace sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 43–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Westerweel, “Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8(12), 1379–1392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. G. Atkins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Instrumentation for interrogating many-element fiber Bragg grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE 2444, 257–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, R. K. Cheo, “Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 700–703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 516–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1978 (1)

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, C. G.

C. G. Atkins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Instrumentation for interrogating many-element fiber Bragg grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE 2444, 257–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, R. K. Cheo, “Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 700–703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Blondel, M.

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chah, K.

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. C.

H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, K. C. Chan, “Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 270, 25–30 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charonko, J.

A. C. Eckstein, J. Charonko, “Phase correlation processing for DPIV measurements,” Experiments Fluids 45, 485–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, R. K.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, R. K. Cheo, “Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 700–703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, K. T.

K. T. Christensen, “On the influence of peak-locking errors on turbulance statistics compared from piv ensembles,” Experiments Fluids 36(3), 484–497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W.

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Eckstein, A. C.

A. C. Eckstein, J. Charonko, “Phase correlation processing for DPIV measurements,” Experiments Fluids 45, 485–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ezbiri, A.

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High resolution instrumentation system for fiber-Bragg grating aerospace sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 43–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Floreani, F.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Instrumentation for interrogating many-element fiber Bragg grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE 2444, 257–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Glenn, W. H.

Gong, J. M.

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, S. T. Wereley, “A correlation-based continuous window-shift technique to reduce the peak-locking in digital PIV evaluation,” Experiments Fluids 32, 506–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B.

Handerek, V. A.

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High resolution instrumentation system for fiber-Bragg grating aerospace sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 43–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K.O.

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Jin, W.

H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, K. C. Chan, “Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 270, 25–30 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jing, W.

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, D. C.

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowsky, H.

L. Negri, A. Nied, H. Kalinowsky, A. Paterno, “Benchmark of peak detection algorithms in fiber Bragg grating interrogation and a new neural network for its performance improvement,” Sensors 11, 3466–3482 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

A. Ezbiri, S. E. Kanellopoulos, V. A. Handerek, “High resolution instrumentation system for fiber-Bragg grating aerospace sensors,” Opt. Commun. 150, 43–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999), Vol. IV.

Kawasaki, B. S.

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kompenhans, J.

M. Raffel, C. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry—A Practical Guide (Springer, 1998).

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. T.

H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, K. C. Chan, “Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 270, 25–30 (2007).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lhommé, F.

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. B.

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. Y.

H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, K. C. Chan, “Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 270, 25–30 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 516–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

MacAlpine, J. M. K.

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

S. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 516–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melle, S.

S. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 516–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, “Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263–1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse folographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, R. K. Cheo, “Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 700–703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse folographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negri, L.

L. Negri, A. Nied, H. Kalinowsky, A. Paterno, “Benchmark of peak detection algorithms in fiber Bragg grating interrogation and a new neural network for its performance improvement,” Sensors 11, 3466–3482 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nied, A.

L. Negri, A. Nied, H. Kalinowsky, A. Paterno, “Benchmark of peak detection algorithms in fiber Bragg grating interrogation and a new neural network for its performance improvement,” Sensors 11, 3466–3482 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paterno, A.

L. Negri, A. Nied, H. Kalinowsky, A. Paterno, “Benchmark of peak detection algorithms in fiber Bragg grating interrogation and a new neural network for its performance improvement,” Sensors 11, 3466–3482 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, G. D.

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1442–1463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Atkins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, “Instrumentation for interrogating many-element fiber Bragg grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE 2444, 257–267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Raffel, M.

M. Raffel, C. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry—A Practical Guide (Springer, 1998).

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–377 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

Tam, H.

Wereley, S. T.

L. Gui, S. T. Wereley, “A correlation-based continuous window-shift technique to reduce the peak-locking in digital PIV evaluation,” Experiments Fluids 32, 506–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Westerweel, J.

J. Westerweel, “Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8(12), 1379–1392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willert, C.

M. Raffel, C. Willert, J. Kompenhans, Particle Image Velocimetry—A Practical Guide (Springer, 1998).

Yu, Y.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K.O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnsen, B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Experiments Fluids (3)

L. Gui, S. T. Wereley, “A correlation-based continuous window-shift technique to reduce the peak-locking in digital PIV evaluation,” Experiments Fluids 32, 506–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckstein, J. Charonko, “Phase correlation processing for DPIV measurements,” Experiments Fluids 45, 485–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Christensen, “On the influence of peak-locking errors on turbulance statistics compared from piv ensembles,” Experiments Fluids 36(3), 484–497 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, “A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 516–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gong, J. M. K. MacAlpine, C. C. Chan, W. Jin, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, “A novel wavelength detection technique for fiber Bragg grating sensors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14(5), 678–680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, F. Lhommé, M. Blondel, P. Mégret, “Autocorrelation demodulation technique for fiber Bragg grating sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2320–2322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, W. Jing, K. Liu, Y. Zhang, G. D. Peng, “Demodulation of fiber Bragg grating sensor using cross-correlation algorithm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(9), 707–709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, R. K. Cheo, “Fiber laser source/analyzer for Bragg grating sensor array interrogation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 700–703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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