Abstract

Intermittent scanning for continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers is proposed along with a custom-built laser driver optimized for such operation. This approach lowers the overall heat dissipation of the laser by dropping its drive current to zero between individual scans and holding a longer pause between scans. This allows packaging cw-QCLs in TO–3 housings with built-in collimating optics, thus reducing cost and footprint of the device. The fully integrated, largely analog, yet flexible laser driver eliminates the need for any external electronics for current modulation, lowers the demands on power supply performance, and allows shaping of the tuning current in a wide range. Optimized ramp shape selection leads to large and nearly linear frequency tuning (> 1.5 cm−1). Experimental characterization of the proposed scheme with a QCL emitting at 7.7 μm gave a frequency stability of 3.2 × 10−5 cm−1 for the laser emission, while a temperature dependence of 2.3 × 10−4 cm−1/K was observed when the driver electronics was exposed to sudden temperature changes. We show that these characteristics make the driver suitable for high precision trace gas measurements by analyzing methane absorption lines in the respective spectral region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 257–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taubman, “Note: Switch-mode hybrid current controllers for quantum cascade lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 016103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photon. 6, 432–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 562–658 (1980).

Auwera, J. V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bachle, A.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bismuto, A.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, S.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Campargue, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Cappelli, F.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A.

Coudert, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crill, P. M.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, R. Curl, F. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, A. Hutchinson, A. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
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Dana, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Domenico, G.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Francesco, J.

Duxbury, G.

Emmenegger, L.

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 257–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
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J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
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K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
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J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers, (Oxford University, 2013).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photon. 6, 432–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, J. P.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansmann, S.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R.

Herndon, S.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hinkov, B.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, J. Faist, “Single-mode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1 W,” Electron. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photon. 6, 432–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, A.

Hvozdara, L.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jochum, S.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, R. Curl, F. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, A. Hutchinson, A. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langford, N.

Lee, B. H.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 562–658 (1980).

Looser, H.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mangold, M.

Manninen, A.

Massie, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCulloch, M.

McCurdy, M.

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

McManus, B.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muller, A.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Naumenko, O.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D.

Nikitin, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Normand, E.

Orphal, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pusharsky, M.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Santoni, G. W.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shorter, J.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M. M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053103, (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

So, S.

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

Steinbacher, M.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

M. Taubman, “Note: Switch-mode hybrid current controllers for quantum cascade lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 016103 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennyson, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomann, P.

Tittel, F.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, R. Curl, F. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, A. Hutchinson, A. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4425–4430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

Tombez, L.

L. Tombez, F. Cappelli, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, S. Bartalini, D. Hofstetter, “Wavelength tuning and thermal dynamics of continuous-wave mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 031111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Tombez, J. Di Francesco, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, J. Faist, P. Thomann, D. Hofstetter, “Frequency noise of free-running 4.6 μm distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers near room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3109–3111 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuzson, B.

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38, 257–259 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Techn. 6, 927–936 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, C. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. M. Šimečková, M. Smith, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. Toth, A. Vandaele, J. V. Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vandeputte, G.

S. Blaser, A. Bachle, S. Jochum, L. Hvozdara, G. Vandeputte, S. Brunner, S. Hansmann, A. Muller, J. Faist, “Low-consumption (below 2 W) continuous wave single mode quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 43, 1201–1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P.

Varner, R. K.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57, 131–139 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Wofsy, S. C.

G. W. Santoni, B. H. Lee, J. P. Goodrich, R. K. Varner, P. M. Crill, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, S. C. Wofsy, “Mass fluxes and isofluxes of methane (CH4) at a New Hampshire fen measured by a continuous wave quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. D 117D10301(2012).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, F. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 487, 1–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Tittel, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. Curl, A. Kosterev, M. McCurdy, S. So, G. Wysocki, “Laser based chemical sensor technology: Recent advances and applications” in Advanced Environmental Monitoring, Y. Kim, U. Platt, eds. (SpringerNetherlands, 2008), pp. 50–63.
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Photon. 6, 432–439 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M.

J. McManus, D. Nelson, S. Herndon, J. Shorter, M. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, “Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 235–241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser modulation schemes: a) Standard modulation used for spectroscopy. A saw tooth waveform modulates the laser current in a narrow range around a fixed set-point above the threshold (top). For a sufficiently slow modulation the emission wavelength follows the current (bottom). b) Intermittent modulation with reduced duty cycle. The enhanced temperature chirp at the beginning of the scan causes a large tuning and the emission frequency is slightly blue shifted, even though the temperature of the laser heat sink is the same.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the experimental setup (more details in text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved step-scan measurements of a QCL operated in intermittent scanning mode in a TO–3 package with square pulse modulation. Recorded with 0.1 cm−1 spectral and 6 μs temporal resolution. The periodical ripples around the pulse trace are FT artifacts due to the box-car function, which was selected to obtain the highest resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency chirp measurement of a cw QCL during intermittent scanning with a square current pulse. The current pulse (a) injected to the laser leads to a shift in the laser emission frequency that is revealed by the interference fringes of the Ge-etalon (b). The overall frequency tuning (2.5 cm−1 in this case) is then calculated based on the free spectral range (FSR ≃ 0.02455 cm−1) of the Ge-etalon (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematics of the analog driver developed for intermittent scanning of cw-QCLs. The main parts are: i) loading capacitance (Cload) which can be decoupled from the external power supply during pulse generation, ii) alternative pathways for laser current realized by RC-elements defining the shape of the current pulse that is injected to the laser, iii) additional resistor in series with the laser giving the possibility to change the voltage drop across the laser and also to fine tune the ramp profile, and iv) a microprocessor unit, which allows digital communication with a computer via USB-port. Additionally, the driver delivers a trigger signal (TTL) and offers a laser current monitoring port.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Current ramp profiles measured for different RC-elements activated and b) the corresponding tuning behavior of the QCL in TO–3 package driven with the custom developed analog driver. We found the same pattern for all the seven QCLs (covering the 4.5, 6 and 8 μm range) tested in this work.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Tuning behavior as a function of duty cycle at constant pulse length.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Determination of the frequency stability of the intermittent scanning with the custom-developed driver. The position of a methane absorption line is recorded over two hours (top) and the corresponding Allan variance plot as a function of integration time is calculated (bottom).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Influence of varying temperature on the output current of the custom-made driver. The drift in the absorption line position (gray circles) tightly correlates with the average temperature (black line) measured by two thermistors (gray lines) monitoring the driver and the surrounding air temperature, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured transmission spectrum of 1% methane at 80 hPa in a single pass 14 cm long gas cell measured in intermittent scanning mode with a spectral resolution of 3.4 × 10−4 cm−1. The laser is operated in a TO–3 package and is driven by the custom made driver. The inset graph shows a close-up view of a spectral range with isotopologues of CH4 fitted to Voigt profiles with the associated fit-residuals.

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