Abstract

We describe time-resolved measurements of the evolution of the spectrum of radiation emitted by an optically-pumped continuous-wave InGaAs-GaAs quantum well laser, recorded as lasing builds up from noise to steady state. We extract a fitting parameter corresponding to the gain dispersion of the parabolic spectrum equal to −79 ± 30 fs2 and −36 ± 6 fs2 for a resonant and anti-resonant structure, respectively. Furthermore the recorded evolution of the spectrum allows for the calculation of an effective FWHM gain bandwidth for each structure, of 11 nm and 18 nm, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Tropper, A. H. Quartermann, and K. G. Wilcox, Advances in Semiconductor Lasers, (Academic Press, 2012), Chap. 7.
  2. U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, “Variable repetition frequency femtosecond-pulse surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).
  8. M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Borgentun, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, “Direct measurement of the spectral reflectance of OP-SDL gain elements under optical pumping,” Opt. Express 19(18), 16890–16897 (2011).
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  13. M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. E. Barnes, Z. Mihoubi, K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, V. Apostolopoulos, A. C. Tropper, “Gain bandwidth characterization of surface-emitting quantum well laser gain structures for femtosecond operation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21330–21341 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. R. Head, “Optical trapping and optical sources for nanophotonics,” Univ. of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis (2013). http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/359888/
  16. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Alam, S.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Apostolopoulos, V.

Asom, M. T.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, M. E.

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, “Variable repetition frequency femtosecond-pulse surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

Borgentun, C.

Boyd, G. D.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H.-Y.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Chiu, T. H.

Diddams, S. A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

Feehan, J. S.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Ferguson, J. F.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

Golling, M.

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Head, C. R.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinen, B.

Hoffmann, M.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

Kunert, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

Livshits, D. A.

Mangold, M.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

Miller, D. A. B.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A. E. H.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pekarek, S.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Quarterman, A. H.

Ritchie, D. A.

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Sieber, O. D.

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, M. C.

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Tropper, A. C.

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, “Variable repetition frequency femtosecond-pulse surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Barnes, Z. Mihoubi, K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, V. Apostolopoulos, A. C. Tropper, “Gain bandwidth characterization of surface-emitting quantum well laser gain structures for femtosecond operation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21330–21341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.-L.

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, “Variable repetition frequency femtosecond-pulse surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Barnes, Z. Mihoubi, K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, V. Apostolopoulos, A. C. Tropper, “Gain bandwidth characterization of surface-emitting quantum well laser gain structures for femtosecond operation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21330–21341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittwer, V. J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. C. Stumpf, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, J. M. Dudley, U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a 170-fs, 1.5-µm solid-state laser oscillator,” Appl. Phys. B 99(3), 401–408 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, A. C. Tropper, “Variable repetition frequency femtosecond-pulse surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Scheller, T.-L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Head, H.-Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S. Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(5), 1041–1135 (2013).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. R. Head, “Optical trapping and optical sources for nanophotonics,” Univ. of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis (2013). http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/359888/

A. C. Tropper, A. H. Quartermann, and K. G. Wilcox, Advances in Semiconductor Lasers, (Academic Press, 2012), Chap. 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of VECSEL and detection system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral evolution, a), and corresponding gain spectrum, b), of the resonant structure. c) & d) are extracted lines of the gain spectrum (red circles) at 25 µs and 50 µs after lasing onset, respectively, including the respective parabolic fits (black line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the fit parameters: a) the offset in the y-direction b) curvature of the parabola, and c) the centre angular frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the curvature, B, of the parabolic fits to the gain spectrum for the resonant (red) and anti-resonant (black) structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of A = 1/(2µ2) with generation time for a) the anti-resonant and b) resonant sample. The red (dashed) line is a straight line fit with a slope of 9.72x10−21 s/rad2 and 2.26x10−20 s/rad2, respectively.

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