Abstract

We reported on the generation of femtosecond pulse in a fiber ring laser by using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based topological insulator (TI), Bi2Se3 saturable absorber (SA). The PVA-TI composite has a low saturable optical intensity of 12 MW/cm2 and a modulation depth of ~3.9%. By incorporating the fabricated PVA-TISA into a fiber laser, mode-locking operation could be achieved at a low pump threshold of 25 mW. After an optimization of the cavity parameters, optical pulse with ~660 fs centered at 1557.5 nm wavelength had been generated. The experimental results demonstrate that the PVA could be an excellent host material for fabricating high-performance TISA, and also indicate that the filmy PVA-TISA is indeed a good candidate for ultrafast saturable absorption device.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, Q. Y. Ning, H. L. Mo, H. Cui, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, A. P. Luo, W. C. Xu, “Vector dissipative soliton resonance in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10199–10204 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. D. Cui, X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an Erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, H. Y. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based Topological Insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Andrejco, M.

Balandin, A. A.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, J. R.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, H. Y. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, H. H.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, H. Y. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chestnut, D. A.

Chong, A.

Clark, W. G.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, H.

Cui, Y. D.

Dresselhaus, M. S.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goyal, V.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grodecki, K.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, M. Z.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

Huang, Y. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, H. Y. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. Ö.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jose, R.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lim, C. T.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. Q.

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

Liu, M.

Liu, X. M.

Loh, K.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

Luo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, H. Y. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Macherzynski, W.

Mo, H. L.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Ning, Q. Y.

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paletko, P.

Peng, B.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Z. P.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renninger, W. H.

Shahil, K. M. F.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sobon, G.

Soni, A.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotor, J.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an Erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, P. H.

Taylor, J. R.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. B.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. T.

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

Wise, F. W.

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, F. W. Wise, “Environmentally stable all-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1071–1073 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. J.

Xiong, Q. H.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, H. Y.

Xu, W. C.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, J. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based Topological Insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an Erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, “Generation of 47-fs pulses directly from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 41–43 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. Y.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. W.

Zou, Y. H.

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, J. X. Yang, S. Wang, D. Y. Tang, R. Jose, S. Ramakrishna, C. T. Lim, K. P. Loh, “Graphene-polymer nanofiber membrane for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(5), 782–791 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-Fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Photonics Rev.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, T. Wang, C. J. Zhao, B. Wang, S. C. Wen, H. J. Zhang, J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhang, Z. P. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. B. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, Q. H. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
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New J. Phys.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Image of Bi2Se3 acetone solution; (b) Image of TI-PVA film; (c) Image of the fabricated fiber-compatible PVA-TISA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectra of TI-PVA, inset: zoom-in view of the Raman peaks of Bi2Se3; (b) Measured nonlinear saturable absorption curve and corresponding fitting curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of mode-locked fiber laser with a PVA-TISA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode-locked operation. (a) Mode locked spectrum; (b) Corresponding pulse-train; (c) Corresponding autocorrelation trace; Inset: autocorrelation trace with full range scan.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stability of femtosecond pulses. (a) RF spectrum; (b) RF spectrum in 2 GHz span; (c) Long term optical spectra measured at a 2-h interval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mode-locked operation when the cavity dispersion is increased to be ~-0.4 ps2. (a) Mode-locked spectrum; (b) Corresponding pulse-train; (c) Autocorrelation trace.

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