Abstract

A compact laser beam direction stabilization scheme is developed that provides the angular stability of better than 50 μrad over a wide range of frequencies from 800 to 4000 cm−1. The schematic is fully automated and features a single MCT quadrant detector. The schematic was tested to stabilize directions of the two IR beams used for dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) measurements and showed excellent results: automatic tuning of the beam direction allowed achieving the alignment quality within 10% of the optimal alignment obtained manually. The schematic can be easily implemented to any nonlinear spectroscopic measurements in the mid-IR spectral region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
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  18. V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Z. Lin, B. Bendiak, I. V. Rubtsov, “Discrimination between coupling networks of glucopyranosides varying at a single stereocenter using two-dimensional vibrational correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 6179–6191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schwarz, M. Ueffing, Y. Deng, X. Gu, H. Fattahi, T. Metzger, M. Ossiander, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, “Active stabilization for optically synchronized optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5557–5565 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Hardin, Y. Liu, C. Long, A. Aleksandrov, W. Blokland, “Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS),” Opt. Express 19(4), 2874–2885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, P. Keiffer, I. V. Rubtsov, “A method for determining small anharmonicity values from 2DIR spectra using thermally induced shifts of frequencies of high-frequency modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(18), 5347–5353 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Garrett-Roe, P. Hamm, “Purely absorptive three-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(16), 164510 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. R. Naraharisetty, V. M. Kasyanenko, I. V. Rubtsov, “Bond connectivity measured via relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(10), 104502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, M. D. Fayer, “Solute-solvent complex kinetics and thermodynamics probed by 2D-IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(33), 10221–10227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14190–14196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1988 (1)

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ageichik, A. A.

Aleksandrov, A.

Bendiak, B.

Z. Lin, B. Bendiak, I. V. Rubtsov, “Discrimination between coupling networks of glucopyranosides varying at a single stereocenter using two-dimensional vibrational correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 6179–6191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. B.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blokland, W.

Bogdanov, M. P.

Bohman, S.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Dimakov, S. A.

Ding, F.

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattahi, H.

Fayer, M. D.

J. Zheng, M. D. Fayer, “Solute-solvent complex kinetics and thermodynamics probed by 2D-IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(33), 10221–10227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulmer, E. C.

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett-Roe, S.

S. Garrett-Roe, P. Hamm, “Purely absorptive three-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(16), 164510 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grafström, S.

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Hamm, P.

S. Garrett-Roe, P. Hamm, “Purely absorptive three-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(16), 164510 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbarth, U.

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, R. A.

Hertel, I. V.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14190–14196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaku, M.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kalinin, V. P.

Kanai, T.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasyanenko, V. M.

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Naraharisetty, V. M. Kasyanenko, I. V. Rubtsov, “Bond connectivity measured via relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(10), 104502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiffer, P.

Z. Lin, P. Keiffer, I. V. Rubtsov, “A method for determining small anharmonicity values from 2DIR spectra using thermally induced shifts of frequencies of high-frequency modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(18), 5347–5353 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kida, Y.

Kienberger, R.

Kobayashi, T.

Kornau, K. M.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotyaev, O. G.

Kowalski, J.

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Kuprenyuk, V. I.

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, B. Bendiak, I. V. Rubtsov, “Discrimination between coupling networks of glucopyranosides varying at a single stereocenter using two-dimensional vibrational correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 6179–6191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, P. Keiffer, I. V. Rubtsov, “A method for determining small anharmonicity values from 2DIR spectra using thermally induced shifts of frequencies of high-frequency modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(18), 5347–5353 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Long, C.

Mathew, N. A.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T.

Midorikawa, K.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naraharisetty, S. R.

S. R. Naraharisetty, V. M. Kasyanenko, I. V. Rubtsov, “Bond connectivity measured via relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(10), 104502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, R.

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Noehte, S.

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Okulov, V. L.

Ossiander, M.

Pakoulev, A. V.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rezunkov, Y. A.

Rickard, M. A.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodionov, A. Y.

Rubtsov, G. I.

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubtsov, I. V.

Z. Lin, B. Bendiak, I. V. Rubtsov, “Discrimination between coupling networks of glucopyranosides varying at a single stereocenter using two-dimensional vibrational correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 6179–6191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, P. Keiffer, I. V. Rubtsov, “A method for determining small anharmonicity values from 2DIR spectra using thermally induced shifts of frequencies of high-frequency modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(18), 5347–5353 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Naraharisetty, V. M. Kasyanenko, I. V. Rubtsov, “Bond connectivity measured via relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(10), 104502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safronov, A. L.

Schmid, K.

Schwarz, A.

Sherstobitov, V. E.

Shestakov, A. P.

Snezhkov, G. Y.

Sokolova, G. A.

Stalmashonak, A.

Starchenko, A. N.

Stepanov, V. V.

Suda, A.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teramoto, T.

Tesar, S. L.

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueffing, M.

Valuev, V. V.

Venglyuk, V. I.

Vetrov, S.

Wang, J.

I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, J. C.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yurs, L. A.

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanni, M. T.

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhavoronkov, N.

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, M. D. Fayer, “Solute-solvent complex kinetics and thermodynamics probed by 2D-IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(33), 10221–10227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

A. V. Pakoulev, M. A. Rickard, K. M. Kornau, N. A. Mathew, L. A. Yurs, S. B. Block, J. C. Wright, “Mixed frequency-/time-domain coherent multidimensional spectroscopy: research tool or potential analytical method?” Acc. Chem. Res. 42(9), 1310–1321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kanai, A. Suda, S. Bohman, M. Kaku, S. Yamaguchi, K. Midorikawa, “Pointing stabilization of a high-repetition-rate high-power femtosecond laser for intense few-cycle pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

S. Garrett-Roe, P. Hamm, “Purely absorptive three-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(16), 164510 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, M. T. Zanni, “Heterodyned fifth-order 2D-IR spectroscopy of the azide ion in an ionic glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(3), 034302 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Naraharisetty, V. M. Kasyanenko, I. V. Rubtsov, “Bond connectivity measured via relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(10), 104502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

J. Zheng, M. D. Fayer, “Solute-solvent complex kinetics and thermodynamics probed by 2D-IR vibrational echo chemical exchange spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(33), 10221–10227 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Kasyanenko, S. L. Tesar, G. I. Rubtsov, A. L. Burin, I. V. Rubtsov, “Structure dependent energy transport: Relaxation-assisted 2DIR measurements and theoretical studies,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(38), 11063–11073 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, P. Keiffer, I. V. Rubtsov, “A method for determining small anharmonicity values from 2DIR spectra using thermally induced shifts of frequencies of high-frequency modes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(18), 5347–5353 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Grafström, U. Harbarth, J. Kowalski, R. Neumann, S. Noehte, “Fast laser beam position control with submicroradian precision,” Opt. Commun. 65(2), 121–126 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Z. Lin, B. Bendiak, I. V. Rubtsov, “Discrimination between coupling networks of glucopyranosides varying at a single stereocenter using two-dimensional vibrational correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(18), 6179–6191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

R. M. Hochstrasser, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(36), 14190–14196 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Rubtsov, J. Wang, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Dual-frequency 2D-IR spectroscopy heterodyned photon echo of the peptide bond,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(10), 5601–5606 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. V. Rubtsov, “Energy transport in molecules studied by relaxation-assisted 2DIR spectroscopy,” in Ultrafast Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy, M. Fayer, ed. (Taylor and Francis, 2013), pp. 333–359.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of the beam stabilization unit. The computer (PC) controlled elements are indicated by thin black lines connected to the PC. Here M is a computer controlled mirror, W is a wedge, L is a lens, F is a filter, BS is a beam splitter, Quad is a quad detector, and A is an aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The beam diameters were 2.8, 2.9, and 3.0 μm at 3850, 2000, 1250 cm−1 respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase matching geometry for the dual-frequency 2DIR measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dual-frequency 2DIR spectrum of methylglycolate (shown in the inset) in CDCl3 at 20 mM concentration measured at the 0.6 ps waiting time. The overall spectrum is combined of the spectra measured in specific frequency regions, each ca. 250 cm−1 wide. The linear absorption spectrum of the sample is shown in the attached panels.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Beam deviations recorded at various wavelengths performing a disturb-stabilize cycle.

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Table 2 Beam deviations when switching between different frequencies.

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