Abstract

We demonstrated 40Gbit/s optical link by coupling a silicon (Si) optical modulator to a germanium (Ge) photo-detector from two separate photonic chips. The optical modulator was based on carrier depletion in a pn diode integrated in a 950-µm long Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Ge photo-detector was a lateral pin diode butt coupled to a silicon waveguide. The overall loss, which is mainly due to coupling (3 grating couplers times ~4 dB) was estimated to be lower than 18 dB. That also included modulator loss (4.9-dB) and propagation loss (<1dB/cm). Both optoelectronic devices have been fabricated on a 300-mm CMOS platform to address high volume production markets.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

2012 (9)

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

Accard, A.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aroca, R. A.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baeyens, Y.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baudot, C.

Bessette, J. T.

Bœuf, F.

Bordel, D.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cassan, E.

Chaisakul, P.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chrastina, D.

Chu, T.

Claussen, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Doerr, C. R.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Duan, G.-H.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Edmond, S.

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Frigerio, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Guoliang, L.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Isella, G.

Ishikawa, Y.

Itabashi, S.

Itabashi, S.-I.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jany, C.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

Kamins, T.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, C.-C.

Lamponi, M.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lecunff, Y.

Lelarge, F.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liepvre, A. L.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. Y.

Liu, J.

Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Long, C.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Make, D.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

Menezo, S.

Messaoudene, S.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Miller, D.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Osmond, J.

Pan, D.

Park, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Patil, D.

Poingt, F.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

Qian, W.

Rai, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rivallin, P.

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M.-S.

Schaevitz, R.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shinojima, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Souhaité, A.

Sun, X.

Thacker, H. D.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Vivien, L.

Vulliet, N.

Wada, K.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zheng, X.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziebell, M.

Zimmermann, H.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (14)

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Bœuf, L. Vivien, “Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22471–22475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://www.itrs.net/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views of the lateral pn diode phase shifter. The waveguide height and width were 220-nm and 400-nm, respectively. The doping levels of p- and n-doped regions were 5 × 1017 cm−3 and 1018 cm−3, respectively. Highly p + + and n + + doped regions were also used to reduce the series resistance of the diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency characteristics of our MZI silicon modulator based on carrier depletion in a pn diode: (a) Normalized optical response as a function of frequency. The cut-off frequency was 26GHz. (b) Eye diagrams at 40 Gbit/s of MZI with 0.95 mm long phase shifter. It can be noticed that 40Gbit/s eye diagram has been measured without averaging, filtering and normalization. The reverse DC bias voltage was 4V and the RF voltage swing was about 7V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic view of the lateral pin Ge photodetector integrated in a Si waveguide. Intrinsic region width was 700-nm and photo-detector length was 10µm. Both p- and n- doping levels were 1.1019 cm−3. (b) Typical current-voltage curve. Under illumination, reverse current dramatically increased.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical responses as a function of frequency under 0V, −1V and −2V bias at the 1.55 µm wavelength. The photodetector length was 10 µm and the intrinsic region width was 700 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(top) Set-up used to couple the carrier depletion pn Si modulator and the Ge waveguide photo-detector. (Bottom) 40Gbit/s eye diagram recorded by the sampling oscilloscope from the Ge detector.

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