Abstract

We demonstrated 40Gbit/s optical link by coupling a silicon (Si) optical modulator to a germanium (Ge) photo-detector from two separate photonic chips. The optical modulator was based on carrier depletion in a pn diode integrated in a 950-µm long Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Ge photo-detector was a lateral pin diode butt coupled to a silicon waveguide. The overall loss, which is mainly due to coupling (3 grating couplers times ~4 dB) was estimated to be lower than 18 dB. That also included modulator loss (4.9-dB) and propagation loss (<1dB/cm). Both optoelectronic devices have been fabricated on a 300-mm CMOS platform to address high volume production markets.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

2012 (9)

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

Accard, A.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aroca, R. A.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baeyens, Y.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baudot, C.

Bessette, J. T.

Bœuf, F.

Bordel, D.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Cassan, E.

Chaisakul, P.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chrastina, D.

Chu, T.

Claussen, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coudevylle, J.-R.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Doerr, C. R.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Duan, G.-H.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Edmond, S.

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Fedeli, J.-M.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Frigerio, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grosse, P.

Guoliang, L.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Isella, G.

Ishikawa, Y.

Itabashi, S.

Itabashi, S.-I.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jany, C.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

Kamins, T.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, C.-C.

Lamponi, M.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lecunff, Y.

Lelarge, F.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liepvre, A. L.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. Y.

Liu, J.

Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Long, C.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Make, D.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G.

Menezo, S.

Messaoudene, S.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Miller, D.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, S.

Osmond, J.

Pan, D.

Park, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Patil, D.

Poingt, F.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Polzer, A.

Qian, W.

Rai, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

Ren, S.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rivallin, P.

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M.-S.

Schaevitz, R.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shinojima, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Souhaité, A.

Sun, X.

Thacker, H. D.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Vivien, L.

Vulliet, N.

Wada, K.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ziebell, M.

Zimmermann, H.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (14)

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Bœuf, L. Vivien, “Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22471–22475 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://www.itrs.net/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views of the lateral pn diode phase shifter. The waveguide height and width were 220-nm and 400-nm, respectively. The doping levels of p- and n-doped regions were 5 × 1017 cm−3 and 1018 cm−3, respectively. Highly p + + and n + + doped regions were also used to reduce the series resistance of the diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency characteristics of our MZI silicon modulator based on carrier depletion in a pn diode: (a) Normalized optical response as a function of frequency. The cut-off frequency was 26GHz. (b) Eye diagrams at 40 Gbit/s of MZI with 0.95 mm long phase shifter. It can be noticed that 40Gbit/s eye diagram has been measured without averaging, filtering and normalization. The reverse DC bias voltage was 4V and the RF voltage swing was about 7V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic view of the lateral pin Ge photodetector integrated in a Si waveguide. Intrinsic region width was 700-nm and photo-detector length was 10µm. Both p- and n- doping levels were 1.1019 cm−3. (b) Typical current-voltage curve. Under illumination, reverse current dramatically increased.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical responses as a function of frequency under 0V, −1V and −2V bias at the 1.55 µm wavelength. The photodetector length was 10 µm and the intrinsic region width was 700 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(top) Set-up used to couple the carrier depletion pn Si modulator and the Ge waveguide photo-detector. (Bottom) 40Gbit/s eye diagram recorded by the sampling oscilloscope from the Ge detector.

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