Abstract

We fabricate and demonstrate a compact polarization insensitive filter for all-optical clock recovery (CR) based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which consists of a microring resonator (MRR) and two modified two-dimensional (2D) grating couplers. The distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) are introduced to improve the coupling efficiency of the 2D grating coupler. The MRR works as a comb filter for CR, while the 2D grating couplers serve as the polarization diversity unit to achieve a polarization insensitive operation. A subsequent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) performs the amplitude equalization. Based on this scheme, a good clock signal with 970 fs timing jitter can be achieved at 44 Gb/s from input signals with arbitrary polarization states.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Roncin, S. Lobo, L. Bramerie, A. O’Hare, J.-C. Simon, “System characterization of a passive 40 Gb/s All Optical Clock Recovery ahead of the receiver,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6003–6009 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Peucheret, J. Seoane, and H. Ji, “All-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals using optical resonator-type filters,” in The 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (IEEE, 2009), 1–2.
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Xiang, L. Chao, S. Ping, H. H. M. Shalaby, T. H. Cheng, P. Ye, “A performance analysis of an all-optical clock extraction circuit based on Fabry-Perot filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(5), 603–613 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Gunn, “CMOS photonicsTM - SOI learns a new trick,” in Proceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference (IEEE, 2005), 7–13.
  8. B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Xiong, Y. Ding, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, “All-optical clock recovery from 40 Gbit/s RZ signal based on microring resonators,” Appl. Opt. 50(28), 5390–5396 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Xiang, Y. Yu, Y. Qin, J. Zou, B. Zou, X. Zhang, “SOI based ultracompact polarization insensitive filter for PDM signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2379–2381 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1567–1578 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 612–618 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(4), 417–425 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, S. Menezo, L. C. Andreani, “Broad parameter optimization of polarization-diversity 2D grating couplers for silicon photonics,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21556–21568 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, “Reducing polarization-dependent loss of silicon-on-insulator fiber to chip grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Popović, “Theory and design of high-index-contrast microphotonic circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2008).
  22. Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, B. Zsigri, J. Seoane, L. Liu, J. Xu, H. Ou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, “Multi-channel WDM RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on single silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21121–21130 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

M. Xiong, Y. Ding, Q. Zhang, X. Zhang, “All-optical clock recovery from 40 Gbit/s RZ signal based on microring resonators,” Appl. Opt. 50(28), 5390–5396 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, “Reducing polarization-dependent loss of silicon-on-insulator fiber to chip grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, B. Zsigri, J. Seoane, L. Liu, J. Xu, H. Ou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, “Multi-channel WDM RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on single silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21121–21130 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2007

2006

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

Andreani, L. C.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

Beckx, S.

Benisty, H.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, “Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1583–1591 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bramerie, L.

Brenot, R.

Cambournac, C.

Carroll, L.

Chao, L.

Cheng, T. H.

Ciaramella, E.

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Contestabile, G.

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

D’Errico, A.

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Dumon, P.

Enbo, Z.

Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Frandsen, L. H.

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonicsTM - SOI learns a new trick,” in Proceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference (IEEE, 2005), 7–13.

Halir, R.

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, “Reducing polarization-dependent loss of silicon-on-insulator fiber to chip grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harold, C.

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, M. Pu, B. Zsigri, J. Seoane, L. Liu, J. Xu, H. Ou, X. Zhang, D. Huang, “Multi-channel WDM RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on single silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21121–21130 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Krauss, T. F.

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Küppers, F.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Lobo, S.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menezo, S.

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Hare, A.

Ou, H.

Peucheret, C.

Ping, S.

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pluk, E.

Presi, M.

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M.

Qin, Y.

Roelkens, G.

Roncin, V.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seoane, J.

Shalaby, H. H. M.

Simon, J.-C.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stomeo, T.

Taillaert, D.

Tervonen, A.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, “Reducing polarization-dependent loss of silicon-on-insulator fiber to chip grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

von Lerber, T.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

Xiang, L.

Xiang, Z.

Xinliang, Z.

Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, M.

Xu, J.

Ye, P.

Yu, Y.

L. Xiang, Y. Yu, Y. Qin, J. Zou, B. Zou, X. Zhang, “SOI based ultracompact polarization insensitive filter for PDM signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2379–2381 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, X.

Zou, B.

Zou, J.

Zsigri, B.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

G. Contestabile, A. D’Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, “40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted fabry-Pe´ rot filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2523–2525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, Z. Xinliang, Z. Enbo, D. Huang, “All-optical clock recovery from NRZ signals at different bit rates via preprocessing by an optical filter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2039–2041 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, C. Harold, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, G. Roelkens, “Reducing polarization-dependent loss of silicon-on-insulator fiber to chip grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Photonics Rev.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

T. von Lerber, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. Ludvigsen, F. Küppers, “Optical clock recovery methods: Review (Invited),” Opt. Fiber Technol. 15(4), 363–372 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Peucheret, J. Seoane, and H. Ji, “All-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals using optical resonator-type filters,” in The 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (IEEE, 2009), 1–2.
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonicsTM - SOI learns a new trick,” in Proceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference (IEEE, 2005), 7–13.

M. Popović, “Theory and design of high-index-contrast microphotonic circuits,” Ph.D. thesis (MIT, 2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The proposed scheme (a) the schematic configuration and (b) the operation principle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated results of MRR design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated results of 2D grating coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The SEM top view of the device and (b) the measured spectrum of MMR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured spectra and eye diagrams of (a) original RZ-OOK signals (b) signals after MRR but before SOA (c) signals after SOA (d) varying polarization states signals after SOA.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FSR= c 0 2πR n g
n g (λ)= n eff (λ)λ n eff (λ) λ
n Si (λ)=3.4760.07805(λ1.55)+0.082 (λ1.55) 2

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