Abstract

We have evaluated and compared modal noise induced in a graded-index silica multimode fiber (GI-MMF) link and a graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) link with the misaligned fiber connections. In radio over fiber (RoF) systems using these optical fibers, modal noise appears as unwanted amplitude modulation in the received signal, and results in degradation of the RoF transmission performance. In this work, we have evaluated the modal noise induced in GI-MMFs and GI-POFs with its same core diameter of 50 μm. Our results show that GI-POFs have an inherently higher tolerance to misaligned connection and less modal noise than GI-MMFs in terms of both the error-vector magnitude and the speckle pattern of the transmitted signals.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, Ch. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 569–586 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in analogue and digital optical fibre systems,” in Proc. 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78), 492 (1978).
  8. T. Kanada, K. Aoyama, “Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 8(6), 339–341 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, “Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links,” Opt. Express 16(1), 121–126 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, Ch. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 569–586 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Alcaro, G.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, K.

Bunge, C.-A.

Capmany, J.

Caspar, Ch.

Chia, M. Y. W.

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

Epworth, R. E.

R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in analogue and digital optical fibre systems,” in Proc. 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78), 492 (1978).

Faccin, P.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Freund, R. E.

Furukawa, R.

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gasulla, I.

George, J.

Giaretta, G.

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Golowich, S.

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hau, E. J. Z.

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, A.

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanada, T.

Kobyakov, A.

Koike, K.

Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, T.

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kutchta, D.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

Luo, B.

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, M.

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Molin, D.

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, M. N.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Risteski, A.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

Sim, D. H.

Takushima, Y.

Tarlazzi, L.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tartarini, G.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Visani, D.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yee, M. L.

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Polym. Sci. B (1)

Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Area Commun. (1)

T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in analogue and digital optical fibre systems,” in Proc. 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78), 492 (1978).

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for evaluating modal noise in test fibers. VCSEL: Vertical-cavity surface emitting laser-diode, PD: Photo-diode, OPM: Optical power meter, SA: Signal analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EVMs and optical power profiles of transmitted signals while changing offset positions. (a) GI-MMF, X-axis, (b) GI-MMF, Y-axis, (c) GI-POF, X-axis, (d) GI-POF, Y-axis. The dashed lines show the EVMs when the fibers were connected using a FC/PC mating sleeve for conventional SMF connection. The insets show the constellations of the transmitted signals at each offset position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EVMs as a function of normalized power in cases of (a) X-axis and (b) Y-axis misaligned connections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal changes of the EVM of (a) GI-MMF and (b) GI-POF in the + 12-μm X-axis offset positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EVMs of the transmitted signals at carrier frequencies of (a) 200 MHz and (b) 300 MHz in the case of Y-axis offset connection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Speckle patterns of (a) GI-MMF and (b) GI-POF outputs for various offset positions at a carrier frequency of 100 MHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity distributions of speckle patterns of (a) GI-MMF and (b) GI-POF for various offset positions.

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