Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ~3.8 dB in signal quality factors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. E. F. Mateo, L. Zhu, G. Li, “Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16124–16137 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Shieh, “PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 134–136 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Serena, N. Rossi, and A. Bononi, “Nonlinear penalty reduction induced by PMD in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK coherent systems,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper Th.10.4.3.
  23. Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5099–5106 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Olsson et al., “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” ECOC’12, paper Th.2.F.1 (2012).

2014

2013

Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5099–5106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

W. Shieh, “PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 134–136 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adamiecki, A.

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carena, A.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chang, F.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Cotter, D.

Curri, V.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Doerr, C. R.

Du, L. B.

Ellis, A. D.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Fishteyn, M.

Forghieri, F.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foschini, G. J.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frascella, P.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, F. C.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-K.

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krummrich, P. M.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Liu, X.

Lowery, A. J.

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mateo, E. F.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Möller, L.

L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F. H.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

Prucnal, P. R.

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, “PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 134–136 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinsky, J. H.

Spalter, S.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T. F.

Tian, Y.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Winzer, P. J.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, J.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Zhu, L.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, “PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 134–136 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Serena, N. Rossi, and A. Bononi, “Nonlinear penalty reduction induced by PMD in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK coherent systems,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper Th.10.4.3.

S. Olsson et al., “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” ECOC’12, paper Th.2.F.1 (2012).

S. Radic, “Fiber parametric amplifiers: physics and applications,” OFC’07, Tutorial OWQ5 (2007).

B. Schmauss, C. Lin, and R. Asif, “Progress in digital back propagation,” ECOC’12, invited talk Th.1.D.5.

X. Liu, H. Hu, S. Chandrasekhar, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, M. Dinu, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, “Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber,” 2013 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP’13), post-deadline paper AF2E.1, Beijing, China (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for the modulation and de-correlation of 8 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals; (b) PI-OPA setup for simultaneous optical phase conjugation of the signals. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DAC: digital-to-analog converter; WSS: wavelength-selective switch; PC: polarization controller; PM: phase modulator; AMP: electronic amplifier; RFT: radio-frequency tone; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber;

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of the principle of the generation of the WDM-PCTWs by a PI-OPA; (b) Measured optical spectra of the converted idlers, together with the signals and the pumps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the re-circulating transmission link and offline-DSP based digital coherent receiver. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DCF: dispersion-compensating fiber; TWRS: TrueWave reduced slope fiber; WSS: wavelength-selective switch; GEF: gain-equalization filter; PS: polarization scrambler; OLO: optical local oscillator; BDs: balanced detectors; ADC: analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Estimated Q2-factor for signals and idlers after broadband phase conjugation by the PI-OPA; (b) Representative recovered constellations of signals and idlers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured mean Q2-factor (derived from BER) vs. signal launch power per channel (Pin) at 4000 km; (b) Measured mean Q2-factor vs. transmission distance with Pin = −7 dBm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured BER as a function of channel index after 4000-km transmission over 40 dispersion-managed 100-km TWSR fiber spans at Pin = −7 dBm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histograms of sample measured Q2-factors (derived from the BER) for the signals (a), the idlers (b), and the DCS of the signals and their corresponding idlers (c). Distance: 4000 km. Pin = −7 dBm. Insets: representative worst-case constellations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histograms of sample measured Q2-factors for the DCS of the signals (a) and the DCS of the idlers (b), clearly indicating worse overall performance than the DCS of the signals and their corresponding idlers as shown in Fig. 7(c). Distance: 4000 km. Pin = −7 dBm.

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