Abstract

A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL’s output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1935–1937 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

2008

2007

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, “Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3247–3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

1999

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

1986

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, “Wavelength selection in macular photocoagulation. Tissue optics, thermal effects, and laser systems,” Ophthalmology 93(7), 952–958 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, J.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Anderson, R. R.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avicola, K.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Bedford, R.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, B. W.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Bellancourt, A.-R.

Bengtsson, J.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Beyertt, S.-S.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bissinger, H. D.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Bister, M.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Boll, J.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgentum, C.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Brase, J. M.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Brauch, U.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

Calvez, S.

Carney, J. M.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, A.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M.

Dawson, M. D.

Demaria, F.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Erbert, G. V.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Fallahi, M.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Felder, F.

Fetzer, G.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fill, M.

Friedman, H. W.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Gavel, D. T.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Giesen, A.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Guina, M.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hader, J.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, J.

Hein, A.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Hempler, N.

Hessenius, C.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

Hopkins, J.-M.

Kaneda, Y.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanz, K.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Keller, U.

Kemp, A. J.

Koch, S.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, K.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Korpijärvi, V.-M.

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I.

Kuebler, T.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kunert, B.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laakso, A.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsson, A.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Leinonen, T.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. C.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Liu, Y.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Lyytikäinen, J.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Hastie, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, J. Lyytikäinen, M. Pessa, “High power CW red VECSEL with linearly polarized TEM00 output beam,” Opt. Express 13(1), 77–81 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Macintosh, B.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, “Wavelength selection in macular photocoagulation. Tissue optics, thermal effects, and laser systems,” Ophthalmology 93(7), 952–958 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, “Continuous-wave and micropulse 577 nm yellow–orange laser photocoagulation: a laser for all reasons,” Retina Today1–8 (2010).

Manz, C.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, R.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Moloney, J.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J.

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, K. P.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Nikkinen, J.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Oliver, S. S.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Parrish, J. A.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patience, J.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Pessa, M.

Qu, D. P.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Rahim, M.

Ranta, S.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rattunde, M.

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, “Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3247–3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rautiainen, J.

Rudin, B.

Rutz, A.

Schulz, N.

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, “Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3247–3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seki, Y.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Tan, O. T.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavast, M.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Toikkanen, L.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tukiainen, A.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Unger, P.

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

Van Lieu, N.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Viheriälä, J.

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

N. Hempler, J.-M. Hopkins, A. J. Kemp, N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, J. Wagner, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, “Pulsed pumping of semiconductor disk lasers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3247–3256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waltjen, K. E.

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Wang, T.-L.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wild, C.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Yarborough, J. M.

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Zheng, Q.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Zhou, K.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Zogg, H.

Arch. Dermatol.

O. T. Tan, J. M. Carney, R. Margolis, Y. Seki, J. Boll, R. R. Anderson, J. A. Parrish, “Histologic responses of port-wine stains treated by argon, carbon dioxide, and tunable dye lasers. a preliminary report,” Arch. Dermatol. 122(9), 1016–1022 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Leinonen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, “7.4W yellow GaInNAs-based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

Y. Yao, Q. Zheng, D. P. Qu, K. Zhou, Y. Liu, L. Zhao, “All-solid-state continuous-wave frequency doubled Nd:YAG/LBO laser with 1.2 W output power at 561 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(2), 112–115 (2010).

Ophthalmology

M. A. Mainster, “Wavelength selection in macular photocoagulation. Tissue optics, thermal effects, and laser systems,” Ophthalmology 93(7), 952–958 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Schulz, M. Rattunde, C. Manz, K. Koehler, C. Wild, J. Wagner, S.-S. Beyertt, U. Brauch, T. Kuebler, A. Giesen, “Optically pumped GaSb-based VECSEL emitting 0.6 W at 2.3 µm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1070–1072 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, A. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. Moloney, R. Bedford, J. Murray, W. Stolz, S. Koch, “Extended tunability in a two-chip VECSEL,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(8), 544–546 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Borgentum, J. Bengtsson, A. Larsson, F. Demaria, A. Hein, P. Unger, “Optimization of a broadband gain element for a widely tunable high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 78–980 (2010).

L. Toikkanen, A. Härkönen, J. Lyytikäinen, T. Leinonen, A. Laakso, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, M. Bister, M. Guina, “Optically pumped edge-emitting GaAs-based laser with direct orange emission,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(4), 384–386 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. W. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, L. Fan, Y. Kaneda, C. Hessenius, J. Hader, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, J. Murray, R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high-power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. E. Max, S. S. Oliver, H. W. Friedman, J. An, K. Avicola, B. W. Beeman, H. D. Bissinger, J. M. Brase, G. V. Erbert, D. T. Gavel, K. Kanz, M. C. Liu, B. Macintosh, K. P. Neeb, J. Patience, K. E. Waltjen, “Image improvement from sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optic system,” Science 277(5332), 1649–1652 (1997).

Other

M. A. Mainster, “Continuous-wave and micropulse 577 nm yellow–orange laser photocoagulation: a laser for all reasons,” Retina Today1–8 (2010).

N. Farahani, M. J. Schibler, and L. A. Bentolila, “Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy: from theory to practice,” In Microscopy: Science, Technology, Applications and Education, A. Méndez-Vilas, J. Díaz, Eds. (Formatex Research Center, 2010), pp. 1539–1547.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the semiconductor layer structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the frequency doubled VECSEL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output power curve for yellow emission. Inset: Beam profile recorded at maximum power. (b) Yellow spectrum measured at the maximum output power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum and yellow output power measured at each wavelength tuning point. The spectra curves are rescaled to equal height in order to better reveal their shape for a better comparison. The output power for each wavelength can be read from the right y-axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of the mount temperature as a function of the absorbed pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power characteristics for different gain mirror mount temperatures. Insets: Beam profiles recorded at each maximum output power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pulse shapes for the pump laser driver (black trace), pump laser output (red) and VECSEL output (blue) recorded at maximum pump laser operation for 1.5 µs pulse width setting.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Output power characteristics for 20 °C (mount temperature of gain mirror) continuous wave (average power) and pulsed operation (peak power) at two different pulse width settings. (b) Output spectrum measured for pulsed operation for 0.57 µs pulse width.

Metrics