Abstract

Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usually<100 KHz). To solve this problem, we introduce the orthogonal basis expansion based (OBE) phase noise suppression method to the coherent OFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Wong, “Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 597–608 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, “Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1309–1316 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Lavery, M. Paskov, and S. Savory, “Spectral shaping for mitigating backreflections in a bidirectional 10 Gbit/s coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OM2A.6 (2013).
  4. X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. Vegas Olmos, I. T. Monroy, M. Beltran, and R. Llorente, “Performance evaluation for DFB and VCSEL-based 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system,” In Proc. ONDM, paper. 252–256 (2013).
  5. R. Gaudino, V. Curri, G. Bosco, G. Rizzelli, A. Nespola, D. Zeolla, S. Straullu, S. Capriata, and P. Solina, “On the use of DFB Lasers for Coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OTh4G.1 (2012).
  6. E. Wong, M. Mueller, M. C. Amann, “Characterization of energy-efficient and colorless ONUs for future TWDM-PONs,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20747–20761 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Phase noise suppression for coherent optical block transmission systems: A unified framework,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17013–17020 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF enabled by RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation,” in Proc. OFC, paper. PDP15 (2007).
  11. D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, S. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 609–620 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Liu, F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21944–21957 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Inan, S. Randel, S. Jansen, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, and N. Hanik, “Pilot-tone-based nonlinearity compensation for optical OFDM systems,” in Proc. ECOC 2010, paper. Tu.4.A.6 (2010).
  15. V. Syrjala, M. Valkama, Y. Zou, N. Tchamov, and J. Rinne, “On OFDM link performance under receiver phase noise with arbitrary spectral shape,” in Proc. WCNC, 1948–1953 (2011).
  16. N. Cvijetic, M. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+ km) high-split ratio (> 1: 64) optical access/metro networks,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OW4B.8 (2012).
  17. ITU-T Recommendation G.975. 1, Appendix 1.9.

2013 (4)

E. Wong, M. Mueller, M. C. Amann, “Characterization of energy-efficient and colorless ONUs for future TWDM-PONs,” Opt. Express 21(18), 20747–20761 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. Millar, B. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, S. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 609–620 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Amann, M. C.

Bayvel, P.

Buchali, F.

Chen, Z.

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lavery, D.

Liu, X.

Ma, Y.

Maher, R.

Millar, D.

Mueller, M.

Savory, S.

Shieh, W.

Thomsen, B.

Wang, Z.

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Phase noise suppression for coherent optical block transmission systems: A unified framework,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17013–17020 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, E.

Yang, C.

X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Phase noise suppression for coherent optical block transmission systems: A unified framework,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17013–17020 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Phase noise suppression for coherent optical block transmission systems: A unified framework,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17013–17020 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Zhang, F.

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. Yang, F. Yang, Z. Wang, “Orthogonal basis expansion-based phase noise estimation and suppression for CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 51–53 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, C. Yang, F. Yang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, “A CO-OFDM system with almost blind phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(17), 1723–1726 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, C. Yang, F. Zhang, “Time-domain maximum-likelihood channel estimation for PDM CO-OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 619–622 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (3)

Other (8)

B. Inan, S. Randel, S. Jansen, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, and N. Hanik, “Pilot-tone-based nonlinearity compensation for optical OFDM systems,” in Proc. ECOC 2010, paper. Tu.4.A.6 (2010).

V. Syrjala, M. Valkama, Y. Zou, N. Tchamov, and J. Rinne, “On OFDM link performance under receiver phase noise with arbitrary spectral shape,” in Proc. WCNC, 1948–1953 (2011).

N. Cvijetic, M. Huang, E. Ip, Y. Shao, Y. Huang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Coherent 40Gb/s OFDMA-PON for long-reach (100+ km) high-split ratio (> 1: 64) optical access/metro networks,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OW4B.8 (2012).

ITU-T Recommendation G.975. 1, Appendix 1.9.

S. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “20-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF enabled by RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation,” in Proc. OFC, paper. PDP15 (2007).

D. Lavery, M. Paskov, and S. Savory, “Spectral shaping for mitigating backreflections in a bidirectional 10 Gbit/s coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OM2A.6 (2013).

X. Pang, A. Lebedev, J. J. Vegas Olmos, I. T. Monroy, M. Beltran, and R. Llorente, “Performance evaluation for DFB and VCSEL-based 60 GHz radio-over-fiber system,” In Proc. ONDM, paper. 252–256 (2013).

R. Gaudino, V. Curri, G. Bosco, G. Rizzelli, A. Nespola, D. Zeolla, S. Straullu, S. Capriata, and P. Solina, “On the use of DFB Lasers for Coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC, paper. OTh4G.1 (2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of coherent optical OFDM systems utilizing OBE or RFP phase noise suppression method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The flow diagram of the OFDM demodulation employing the OBE phase noise suppression method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The flow diagram of the OFDM demodulation using the RFP phase noise suppression method.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The SIR of the back-to-back OFDM system in presence of phase noise with and without the OBE method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of a typical long-reach coherent UDWDM-OFDM-PON (AWG: arrayed waveguide grating).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BER performances of the OBE, RFP and CPE method versus the launched power with laser linewidth = 5MHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER performances of the OBE, RFP and CPE method versus laser linewidth with the launched power = 4dBm.

Equations (20)

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Ψ i = B Γ i ,
Y i = H i 1 F r i ,
f m = 1 N [ 1 e j 2 π N m e j 2 π ( N 1 ) N m ] T .
Γ ^ * i = ( C i H C i ) 1 C i H a ^ i p ,
C i = S H i 1 F d i a g ( r i ) B * .
z i = H i 1 Fdiag( r i ) B * Γ ^ * i .
a ^ i =Q( z i ),
Γ ^ * i = ( C ˜ i H C ˜ i ) 1 C ˜ i H a ^ i ,
C ˜ i =S H i 1 Fdiag( r i ) B d * ,
y i = d i a g ( s i * ) r i .
z i = ( H i ) 1 F y i .
PSR[dB]=10 log 10 ( P RF P OFDM ),
R i (k)= X i (k) J i (0)+ l=0,lk N1 X i (l) J i (kl) .
J i (k)= n=0 N1 e j φ i (n) e j2πnk/N ,
SI R k = E[| X i (k) J i (0) | 2 ] E[| l=0,lk N1 X i (l) J i (kl) | 2 ] .
SIR N 2 + ψ 0 2 k=1 N1 ψ k 2 .
SIR N 2 + ( ψ ^ 0 ψ 0 ) 2 k=(L+1)/2 N(L+1)/2 ψ k 2 + k=1 (L1)/2 ( ψ ^ k ψ k ) 2 + k=N(L1)/2 N1 ( ψ ^ k ψ k ) 2 .
SIR N 2 k=(L+1)/2 N(L+1)/2 ψ k 2 .
ΔSIR= N 2 ( k=1 (L1)/2 ψ k 2 + k=N(L1)/2 N1 ψ k 2 ) ψ 0 2 k=(L+1)/2 N(L+1)/2 ψ k 2 ( k=(L+1)/2 N(L+1)/2 ψ k 2 )( k=1 N1 ψ k 2 ) .
N 2 ( k=1 (L1)/2 ψ k 2 + k=N(L1)/2 N1 ψ k 2 )> ψ 0 2 k=(L+1)/2 N(L+1)/2 ψ k 2 ΔSIR>0.

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