Abstract

We present an all optical approach to measure the value of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of a short intense laser pulse. This method relies on photo-ionization of gases with a guided laser beam. This approach that provides the absolute value of the CEP, is compatible with single shot characterization, is scalable in wavelength, does not suffer from bandwidth limitation and is largely intensity independent. It has also the potential to provide a full characterization of the pulse profile via high order autocorrelation on a single shot basis.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1436–1438 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Miranda, Th. Fordell, C. Arnold, A. L’Huillier, H. Crespo, “Simultaneous compression and characterization of ultrashort laser pulses using chirped mirrors and glass wedges,” Opt. Express 20(1), 688–697 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, “Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053815 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Th. Auguste, O. Gobert, C. F. Dutin, A. Dubrouil, E. Mevel, S. Petit, E. Constant, D. Descamps, “Application of optical-field-ionization-induced spectral broadening in helium gas to the postcompression of high-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1277–1286 (2012).
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  21. E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Miranda, Th. Fordell, C. Arnold, A. L’Huillier, H. Crespo, “Simultaneous compression and characterization of ultrashort laser pulses using chirped mirrors and glass wedges,” Opt. Express 20(1), 688–697 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Auguste, O. Gobert, C. F. Dutin, A. Dubrouil, E. Mevel, S. Petit, E. Constant, D. Descamps, “Application of optical-field-ionization-induced spectral broadening in helium gas to the postcompression of high-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1277–1286 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. Bauer, “Emergence of classical orbits in few-cycle above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, “Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1436–1438 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adolph, D.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Apolonski, A.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, C.

Auguste, Th.

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, “Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer, “Emergence of classical orbits in few-cycle above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canova, L.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chelkowski, S.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, “Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Zh.

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

Corkum, P. B.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo, H.

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descamps, D.

Dooley, P. W.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druon, F.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubrouil, A.

Durfee, C.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutin, C. F.

Eichmann, U.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabian, C.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fordell, Th.

Fujihira, Y.

Gobert, O.

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorling, K.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebing, C.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gridchin, V. V.

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helml, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, T.

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. G.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Jullien, A.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kakehata, M.

Kienberger, R.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kübel, M.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

L’Huillier, A.

Le, A.-T.

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Légaré, F.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Martens, R.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lorin, E.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malvache, A.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manschwetus, B.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

Micheau, S.

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, M.

Möller, M.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Morishita, T.

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nubbemeyer, T.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papadopoulos, D.

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pegarkov, A.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, S.

Popov, A. M.

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathje, T.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Saenz, A.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Schätzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Süßmann, F.

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Tikhonova, O. V.

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkova, E. A.

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanghellini, J.

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaoui, E.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 81–84 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, L. Canova, A. Malvache, A. Jullien, R. Lopez-Martens, C. Durfee, D. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, “1-mJ, sub-5-fs carrier envelope phase-locked pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 149–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43(4), 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

E. A. Volkova, V. V. Gridchin, A. M. Popov, O. V. Tikhonova, “Tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom in short and ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 102(1), 40–52 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

T. Rathje, N. G. Johnson, M. Möller, F. Süßmann, D. Adolph, M. Kübel, R. Kienberger, M. F. Kling, G. G. Paulus, A. M. Sayler, “Review of attosecond resolved measurement and control via carrier–envelope phase tagging with above-threshold ionization,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45(7), 074003 (2012).

S. Micheau, Zh. Chen, T. Morishita, A.-T. Le, C. D. Lin, “Robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval of few-cycle laser pulses from high-energy photoelectron spectra in the above-threshold ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(6), 065402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427(6977), 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, “Asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses: Kinetic-energy spectra and semiclassical explanation of the asymmetries of fast and slow electrons,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053815 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. Bauer, “Emergence of classical orbits in few-cycle above-threshold ionization of atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nubbemeyer, K. Gorling, A. Saenz, U. Eichmann, W. Sandner, “Strong-field tunneling without ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Litvinyuk, F. Légaré, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, J. Zanghellini, A. Pegarkov, C. Fabian, T. Brabec, “Shakeup excitation during optical tunnel ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033003 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica D (1)

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, E. Zaoui, A. Bandrauk, “Maxwell–Schrödinger–plasma (MASP) model for laser–molecule interactions: Towards an understanding of filamentation with intense ultrashort pulses,” Physica D 241(12), 1059–1071 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics,” Science 317(5839), 769–775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon Press, 1977).

M. B. Vinogradova, O. V. Rudenko, and A. P. Sukhorukov, Theory of Waves (Nauka, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated ionization degree as a function of the propagation length for the 3 µm wavelength radiation. The radius of the capillary is 42 µm, it is filled with Argon at low pressure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ionization degree as a function of the propagation length for different chirps of the input pulse. The spectra of the chirped pulses are characterized with equation (S) where d = ± 1 and δ = 2 ; sign of the chirp is controlled with sign of the parameter d.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ionization degree as a function of the propagation length for joint propagation of the fundamental and its weak second harmonic. Two upper (green online) curves describe the case when the second harmonic propagates in the mode EH11, two lower (blue online) ones correspond to its propagation in the mode EH12. Curves with and without circles present results for the sin- and cos-like pulses, correspondingly. The fundamental is 3mkm 30 fs long Fourier-limited pulse propagating in the mode EH11, its intensity is 3.7 1013 W/cm2; the second harmonic is 60 fs long pulse with 2.3 1010 W/cm2 intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Real part of the spatial spectrum of the ionization degree presented in Fig. 3 for propagation of the SH in the mode EH11 (a) and EH12 (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximal Pulse Duration up to Which Our Method is Applicable, Calculated for Different Fundamental Wavelengths and Observable Modulation Depths

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ˜ (t,r,z=0)=E(t,z=0)f(r)
E(t,z=0)= 1 c A(t) t
A(t)= A 0 exp[ 2ln2 ( t τ ) 2 ]sin( ω 0 t+ φ CEP )
f(r)= J 0 (u r a )
S(ω,z)=S(ω,0)exp{ i[ β(ω)+iα(ω) ]z }
β(ω)= nω c [ 1 1 2 ( uc n ω a ) 2 ]
α(ω)= ( uc n ω a ) 2 ν 2 + n 2 2a ν 2 n 2
E ˜ (t,r,z)=E(t,z)f(r)
L CEP = 2 π 2 a 2 λ 0 u 2
a= u π λ 0 L CEP 2
L sp = τ 2 4ln2| d v g 1 dω |
L sp L CEP = π ln2 ( ω 0 τ 2π ) 2
w(t)= 4 F(t) exp[ 2 3F(t) ]
F(t)= E(t) ( 2 I p ) 3/2
p(z)= 1 π a 2 0 a 2πrdr w( E ˜ (t,r,z) ) dt
γ= ω 0 2 I p E 0
S ( ω , 0 ) = S F l ( ω , 0 ) exp [ i d 2 π ( ω ω 0 ω 0 ) δ ]
L rel 1111 = 4 3 L CEP
L rel 1112 = L CEP u 2 u 12 2 4 u 2
L rel 1112 =3.15 L CEP

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