Abstract

To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Takaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Morimoto, O. Konuma, K. Hirabayashi, “Multi-view display module employing MEMS projector array,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28257–28266 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Iwasawa, M. Kawkita, and N. Inoue, “REI: an automultiscope projection display,” Proceedings of 3D System and Applications, (Osaka, Japan, 2013), selected paper 1.
  14. M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Hashiba, Y. Takaki, “Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultra large screen 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 24–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chellappan, K.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-L.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.-C.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. Y.

DeFanti, T.

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erden, E.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hashiba, T.

T. Hashiba, Y. Takaki, “Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultra large screen 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 24–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

Hsu, T. H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. Y.

Koike, T.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konuma, O.

Kooima, R.

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

Kuo, M.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

Morimoto, Y.

Nam, D.

Oikawa, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.-S.

Park, J.

Prudhomme, A.

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandin, D.

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

Schulze, J.

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Surman, P.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Morimoto, O. Konuma, K. Hirabayashi, “Multi-view display module employing MEMS projector array,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28257–28266 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hashiba, Y. Takaki, “Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultra large screen 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 24–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

Tsai, C.-H.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-S.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Hashiba, Y. Takaki, “Development of a 3D pixel module for an ultra large screen 3D display,” Proc. SPIE 5599, 24–31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, 1976).

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

R. Kooima, A. Prudhomme, J. Schulze, D. Sandin, T. DeFanti, “A multi-viewer tiled autostereoscopic virtual reality display, ” in Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (Hong Kong, 2010), pp.171–174.
[CrossRef]

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawkita, and N. Inoue, “REI: an automultiscope projection display,” Proceedings of 3D System and Applications, (Osaka, Japan, 2013), selected paper 1.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2124 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1869 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2624 KB)     

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tiled large-screen 3D displays: (a) landscape, (b) portrait, and (c) curved.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed multi-view display module with frameless screen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Operating principle of the proposed frameless multi-view module: (a) horizontal sectional view, and (b) vertical sectional view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generation of a common viewing area for tiled modules: (a) shifting of the screen lens, (b) shifting of the aperture, and (c) rotation of the modules.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Design of the frameless multi-view display module: (a) horizontal sectional view and (b) vertical sectional view.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Screen Fresnel lens having side surfaces with two-step structures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Constructed frameless multi-view display module.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertically aligned four modules.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Correction of the distortion in the screen imaging: (a)–(c) without correction and with correction using (d)–(f) quadratic approximation and (g)–(i) cubic approximation. (a), (d), and (g) were captured from the leftmost viewing position; (b), (e), and (h) were captured from the center viewing position; and (c), (f), and (i) were captured from the rightmost viewing position.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Correction of the distortion in the viewpoint formation: (a)–(c) without correction and with correction using (d)–(f) quadratic approximation and (g)–(i) cubic approximation. (a), (d), and (g) were captured from the left-side viewing position; (b), (e), and (h) were captured from the center viewing position; and (c), (f), and (i) were captured from the right-side viewing position.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

3D image generated by the vertically aligned four modules: (a)–(c) without correction, and (d)–(f) with correction using cubic approximation. (a) and (d) were captured from the left viewing position, (b) and (e) were captured from the center viewing position, and (c) and (f) were captured from the right viewing position.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

3D images generated by the vertically aligned four modules: (a)–(c) pilot (Media 1), (d)–(f) girl (Media 2), and (g)–(i) space shuttle (Media 3). (a), (d), and (g) were captured from the left viewing position; (b), (e), and (h) were captured from the center viewing position; and (c), (f), and (i) were captured from the right viewing position.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

3D images generated by the vertically aligned four modules without vertical diffusers: captured from (a) left-, (b) center-, and (c) right-viewing positions.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E= i=0 n1 { [ x i f( X i , Y i , U i ) ] 2 + [ y i g( X i , Y i , U i ) ] 2 + [ u i h( X i , Y i , U i ) ] 2 }.
f( X,Y,U )= i,j,k0 i+j+km a i,j,k X i Y j U k ,
g( X,Y,U )= i,j,k0 i+j+km b i,j,k X i Y j U k ,
h( X,Y,U )= i,j,k0 i+j+km c i,j,k X i Y j U k .

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