Abstract

We demonstrate the highest flux tabletop source of coherent soft X-rays to date, driven by a single-stage 10 mJ Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier at 1 kHz. We first down-convert the laser to 1.3 µm using a parametric amplifier, before up-converting it to soft X-rays using high harmonic generation in a high-pressure, phase matched, hollow waveguide geometry. The resulting optimally phase matched broadband spectrum extends to 200 eV, with a soft X-ray photon flux of > 106 photons/pulse/1% bandwidth at 1 kHz, corresponding to > 109 photons/s/1% bandwidth, or approximately a three order-of-magnitude increase compared with past work. Finally, using this broad bandwidth X-ray source, we demonstrate X-ray absorption spectroscopy of multiple elements and transitions in molecules in a single spectrum, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 eV, and with the ability to resolve the near edge fine structure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Dao, C. Hall, H. L. Vu, K. B. Dinh, E. Balaur, P. Hannaford, T. A. Smith, “Phase-matched generation of highly coherent radiation in water window region,” Appl. Opt. 51(18), 4240–4245 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Glownia, J. Cryan, J. Andreasson, A. Belkacem, N. Berrah, C. I. Blaga, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, L. F. DiMauro, L. Fang, J. Frisch, O. Gessner, M. Gühr, J. Hajdu, M. P. Hertlein, M. Hoener, G. Huang, O. Kornilov, J. P. Marangos, A. M. March, B. K. McFarland, H. Merdji, V. S. Petrovic, C. Raman, D. Ray, D. A. Reis, M. Trigo, J. L. White, W. White, R. Wilcox, L. Young, R. N. Coffee, P. H. Bucksbaum, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17620–17630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1747–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Time-Resolved Dynamics in N2O4 Probed Using High Harmonic Generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Z. H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. Matsushima, H. Yashiro, T. Tomie, “A 37% efficiency, kilohertz repetition rate cryogenically cooled ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(25), L823–L826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “The promise of cryogenic solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 587–599 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (4)

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Read, H. S. Karlsson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Haight, “Excitation dynamics of dye doped tris (8-hydroxy quinolone) aluminum films studied using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(1), 294–300 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 465–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Jovanovic, B. J. Comaskey, D. M. Pennington, “Angular effects and beam quality in optical parametric amplification,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(9), 4328–4337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Probst, R. Haight, “Unoccupied molecular orbital states of tris (8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum: Observation and dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 202–204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

O.-P. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics from subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Haight, P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(5), 517–519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE 1868, 2–12 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adam, R.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, D. E.

Aeschlimann, M.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
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Aksela, H.

O.-P. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
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Aksela, S.

O.-P. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
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Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allison, T. K.

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreasson, J.

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 465–467 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahabad, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaur, E.

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bauer, M.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkacem, A.

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrah, N.

Blaga, C. I.

Bolognesi, P.

M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bostedt, C.

Bozek, J.

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bressler, C.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, “The promise of cryogenic solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 587–599 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Buth, C.

Z. H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammarata, M.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, A.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castillejo, M.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, J.

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xiong, H. Xu, Y. Fu, J. Yao, B. Zeng, W. Chu, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, X. Liu, J. Chen, “Generation of a coherent x ray in the water window region at 1 kHz repetition rate using a mid-infrared pump source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1747–1749 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. X.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

Christov, I. P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.

Coffee, R. N.

Coh, S.

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comaskey, B. J.

I. Jovanovic, B. J. Comaskey, D. M. Pennington, “Angular effects and beam quality in optical parametric amplification,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(9), 4328–4337 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coreno, M.

M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correa, R. E.

Z. H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryan, J.

Dao, L. V.

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Decleva, P.

M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
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DiMauro, L. F.

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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
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J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
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T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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K. Read, H. S. Karlsson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Haight, “Excitation dynamics of dye doped tris (8-hydroxy quinolone) aluminum films studied using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(1), 294–300 (2001).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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Hanff, K.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
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Harris, S. E.

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
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J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
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Hoener, M.

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Huang, G.

Hudson, E.

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
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H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
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Kalläne, M.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
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E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
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G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “90 GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2755–2757 (2011).
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M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C. C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22470–22479 (2011).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
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M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Time-Resolved Dynamics in N2O4 Probed Using High Harmonic Generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2128–2130 (2008).
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N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
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S. Backus, R. Bartels, S. Thompson, R. Dollinger, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “High-efficiency, single-stage 7-kHz high-average-power ultrafast laser system,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 465–467 (2001).
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K. Read, H. S. Karlsson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Haight, “Excitation dynamics of dye doped tris (8-hydroxy quinolone) aluminum films studied using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(1), 294–300 (2001).
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C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
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I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the “single-cycle” regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(7), 1251–1254 (1997).
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Reis, D. A.

Remmers, G.

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Resan, B.

J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Rohwer, T.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, L.

Rossnagel, K.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolf, D.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sairanen, O.-P.

O.-P. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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Santra, R.

Z. H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlotter, W. F.

Schneider, C. M.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seaberg, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seaberg, M. D.

Seidler, P. F.

R. Haight, P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(5), 517–519 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seres, E.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seres, J.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirley, D. A.

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shwartz, S.

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidorenko, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
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A. E. Siegman, “Defining, measuring, and optimizing laser beam quality,” Proc. SPIE 1868, 2–12 (1993).
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M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, T. J.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, T. A.

Sohrt, C.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stange, A.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stickrath, A. B.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolow, A.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Time-Resolved Dynamics in N2O4 Probed Using High Harmonic Generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

Thompson, S.

Tomie, T.

I. Matsushima, H. Yashiro, T. Tomie, “A 37% efficiency, kilohertz repetition rate cryogenically cooled ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(25), L823–L826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, E. L.

Trigo, M.

Turgut, E.

E. Turgut, C. La-o-Vorakiat, J. M. Shaw, P. Grychtol, H. T. Nembach, D. Rudolf, R. Adam, M. Aeschlimann, C. M. Schneider, T. J. Silva, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, “Controlling the competition between optically induced ultrafast spin-flip scattering and spin transport in magnetic multilayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viselga, R.

J.-M. Heritier, S. Fournier, G. J. Germann, B. Resan, R. Viselga, A. Fry, “Cryogenically cooled Ti:Sapphire amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510V (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, H. L.

Wagner, N. L.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. L.

White, W.

Wilcox, R.

Wüest, A.

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Xue, C.

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Yashiro, H.

I. Matsushima, H. Yashiro, T. Tomie, “A 37% efficiency, kilohertz repetition rate cryogenically cooled ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(25), L823–L826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

Zeng, B.

Zhang, B.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Time-Resolved Dynamics in N2O4 Probed Using High Harmonic Generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, D.

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Haight, P. F. Seidler, “High resolution atomic core level spectroscopy with laser harmonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(5), 517–519 (1994).
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M. Probst, R. Haight, “Unoccupied molecular orbital states of tris (8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminum: Observation and dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 202–204 (1997).
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E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181919 (2006).
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K. Read, H. S. Karlsson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. Haight, “Excitation dynamics of dye doped tris (8-hydroxy quinolone) aluminum films studied using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(1), 294–300 (2001).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Stener, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O’Keeffe, V. Feyer, G. Fronzoni, P. Decleva, L. Avaldi, A. Kivimäki, “Photoabsorption and S 2p photoionization of the SF6 molecule: resonances in the excitation energy range of 200-280 eV,” J. Chem. Phys. 134(17), 174311 (2011).
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J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

H. T. Lemke, C. Bressler, L. X. Chen, D. M. Fritz, K. J. Gaffney, A. Galler, W. Gawelda, K. Haldrup, R. W. Hartsock, H. Ihee, J. Kim, K. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, M. M. Nielsen, A. B. Stickrath, W. Zhang, D. Zhu, M. Cammarata, “Femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy at a hard x-ray free electron laser: Application to spin crossover dynamics,” J. Phys. Chem. A 117(4), 735–740 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Matsushima, H. Yashiro, T. Tomie, “A 37% efficiency, kilohertz repetition rate cryogenically cooled ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(25), L823–L826 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat Commun 3, 1069 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

M. E. Siemens, Q. Li, R. Yang, K. A. Nelson, E. H. Anderson, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Quasi-ballistic thermal transport from nanoscale interfaces observed using ultrafast coherent soft X-ray beams,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 26–30 (2010).
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Nature (1)

T. E. Glover, D. M. Fritz, M. Cammarata, T. K. Allison, S. Coh, J. M. Feldkamp, H. Lemke, D. Zhu, Y. Feng, R. N. Coffee, M. Fuchs, S. Ghimire, J. Chen, S. Shwartz, D. A. Reis, S. E. Harris, J. B. Hastings, “X-ray and optical wave mixing,” Nature 488(7413), 603–608 (2012).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

O.-P. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hudson, D. A. Shirley, M. Domke, G. Remmers, A. Puschmann, T. Mandel, C. Xue, G. Kaindl, “High-resolution measurements of near-edge resonances in the core-level photoionization spectra of SF6.,” Phys. Rev. A 47(1), 361–373 (1993).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(17), 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(11), 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, Ch. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: Model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Z. H. Loh, M. Khalil, R. E. Correa, R. Santra, C. Buth, S. R. Leone, “Quantum state-resolved probing of strong-field-ionized xenon atoms using femtosecond high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

N. L. Wagner, A. Wüest, I. P. Christov, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Monitoring molecular dynamics using coherent electrons from high harmonic generation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13279–13285 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(26), 10516–10521 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Science (6)

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, “Time-Resolved Dynamics in N2O4 Probed Using High Harmonic Generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-Matched Generation of Coherent Soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, C. Jacobsen, “Generation of Spatially Coherent Light At Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime From Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
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Other (4)

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window by few-cycle IR pulses,” in CLEO:2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper QF1C.3.

J. Stohr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer, 1992).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, “Tabletop Nanometer Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging in an Extended Reflection Mode using Coherent Fresnel Ptychography,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.2049

M.-C. Chen, C. Hernández-García, C. Mancuso, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft x-ray pulses driven by multi-cycle mid-infrared lasers,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.0240 .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Focal spot of the single-stage laser amplifier output (KMLabs Wyvern HETM), using a 1 m focal length lens; (b) M2 characterization of the 0.8 µm amplifier output. Data taken at 10 mJ, 1 kHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flux characterization and comparison of the optimized fully phase matched HHG emission from a 1 cm long, 150 μm diameter, waveguide driven by 1.3 μm and 0.8 µm light in various noble gases (Ar, Ne, and He). The vertical arrows indicate the maximum predicted phase matched HHG energy cutoff for each gas and laser wavelength. The HHG flux obtained using a 1.3 μm driving laser is comparable to that achieved using 0.8 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized raw data for 1.3 μm-driven HHG from Ar (blue), Ne (green), and He (red) after transmission through a 2 mm long sample cell of Xe (HHG from Ar), and SF6 (HHG from Ne and He). Note that the apparent gap between 70 eV and 100 eV is because of Al filters used to block the fundamental light—full tuning across this range can be achieved by switching to other filters as shown in Fig. 2. (b) NEXAFS spectrum of SF6 Sulfur L-edge 2p orbital. The high quality NEXAFS spectra were obtained in a 300 s exposure time. However, changes in the absorption signal can be monitored in real time, with exposures as short as 0.1 s. The modulations between the resonance absorption peaks 6a1g, 2t2g, and 4eg arise from individual harmonic peaks that are separated by 1.9 eV. These modulations can be reduced by increasing the driving pulse energy into the hollow waveguide, implementing beam pointing stabilization, and reducing the integration time.

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