Abstract

We demonstrate femtosecond SESAM modelocking in the near-infrared by using cascaded quadratic nonlinearities (phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation, SHG), enabling soliton modelocking in the normal dispersion regime without any dispersion compensating elements. To obtain large and negative self-phase modulation (SPM) we use an intracavity LBO crystal, whose temperature and angles are optimized with respect to SPM, nonlinear losses, and self-starting characteristics. To support femtosecond pulses, we use the very promising Yb:CaGdAlO4 (CALGO) gain material, operated in a bulk configuration. The LBO crystal provides sufficient negative SPM to compensate for its own GDD as well as the positive GDD and SPM from the gain crystal. The modelocked laser produces pulses of 114 fs at 1050 nm, with a repetition rate of 113 MHz (average output power 1.1 W). We perform a detailed theoretical study of this soliton modelocking regime with positive GDD, which clearly indicates the important design constraints in an intuitive and systematic way. In particular, due to its importance in avoiding multi-pulsed modelocking, we examine the nonlinear loss associated with the cascading process carefully and show how it can be suppressed in practice. With this modelocking regime, it should be possible to overcome the limits faced by current state of the art modelocked lasers in terms of dispersion compensation and nonlinearity management at high powers, suppression of Q-switching in compact GHz lasers, and enabling femtosecond soliton modelocking at very high repetition rates due to the high nonlinearities accessible via cascading combined with eliminating the need for intracavity dispersion compensation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (7)

2012 (8)

A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, J. A. der Au, A. Guandalini, “40-fs Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser pumped by a single-mode 350-mW laser diode,” Opt. Express 20, 10077–10082 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ricaud, A. Jaffres, K. Wentsch, A. Suganuma, B. Viana, P. Loiseau, B. Weichelt, M. Abdou-Ahmed, A. Voss, T. Graf, D. Rytz, C. Hönninger, E. Mottay, P. Georges, F. Druon, “Femtosecond Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin-disk oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3984–3986 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, M. M. Fejer, “Adiabatic optical parametric oscillators: steady-state and dynamical behavior,” Opt. Express 20, 2466–2482 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pervak, O. Pronin, O. Razskazovskaya, J. Brons, I. B. Angelov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Tikhonravov, F. Krausz, “High-dispersive mirrors for high power applications,” Opt. Express 20, 4503–4508 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Witte, K. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric Chirped-Pulse amplification,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 18, 296–307 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Bauer, I. Zawischa, D. H. Sutter, A. Killi, T. Dekorsy, “Mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator with 41 μJ pulse energy at 145 W average infrared power and high power frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 20, 9698–9704 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phasematched waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 18754–18773 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, J. Jiang, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3912–3914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (1)

F. Krausz, M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2478–2480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (3)

J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, “Laser emission with low quantum defect in Yb:CaGdAlO4,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1345–1347 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, “Self-stabilized and dispersion-compensated passively mode-locked Yb:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Applied Physics Letters 86, 171105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (4)

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 4, 197–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 34, 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order χ(2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Optics Communications 142, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

B. Braun, F. Heine, T. Kellner, C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, G. Huber, U. Keller, “Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a passively mode-locked diode-pumped neodymium lanthanum scandium borate laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1567–1569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, L. Torner, “χ(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. Jung, U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

R. Szipöcs, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Chirped multilayer coatings for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 201–203 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kato, “Temperature-tuned 90° phase-matching properties of LiB3O5,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 30, 2950–2952 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical-crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

Abdou-Ahmed, M.

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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
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C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 9–12 (2014).
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A. Klenner, M. Golling, U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express 21, 10351–10357 (2013).
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A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Golling, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAM mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin disk laser with 62 fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3842–3845 (2013).
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C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
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M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18, 10143–10153 (2010).
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S. V. Marchese, C. R. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16, 6397–6407 (2008).
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D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
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R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
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M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Graf, T.

Grange, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
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A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, J. A. der Au, A. Guandalini, “40-fs Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser pumped by a single-mode 350-mW laser diode,” Opt. Express 20, 10077–10082 (2012).
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A. Greborio, A. Guandalini, J. Aus der Au, “Sub-100 fs pulses with 12.5-W from Yb:CALGO based oscillators,” in “Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series,”, vol. 8235 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series(2012), vol. 8235 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series.

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R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
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R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
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C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
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Hoh, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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Hönninger, C.

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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B. Braun, F. Heine, T. Kellner, C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, G. Huber, U. Keller, “Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a passively mode-locked diode-pumped neodymium lanthanum scandium borate laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1567–1569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huebner, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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F. Krausz, M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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Jaffres, A.

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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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Jung, I.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
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F. X. Kärtner, I. Jung, U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 540–556 (1996).
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Jung, I. D.

Kamp, M.

Kärtner, F. X.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 4, 197–208 (1998).
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F. X. Kärtner, I. Jung, U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 540–556 (1996).
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U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
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F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, U. Keller, “Solitary-pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486–496 (1995).
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I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton mode locking using only a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1892–1894 (1995).
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F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 16–18 (1995).
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Kasriel, S.

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Temperature-tuned 90° phase-matching properties of LiB3O5,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 30, 2950–2952 (1994).
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Keller, U.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 9–12 (2014).
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A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 21, 24770–24780 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Golling, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAM mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin disk laser with 62 fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3842–3845 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express 21, 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Applied Physics B 100, 15–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18, 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16, 6397–6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Physics Reports 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 4, 197–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. Jung, U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Braun, F. Heine, T. Kellner, C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, G. Huber, U. Keller, “Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a passively mode-locked diode-pumped neodymium lanthanum scandium borate laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1567–1569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 16–18 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton mode locking using only a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1892–1894 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, U. Keller, “Solitary-pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486–496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, H. Telle, U. Keller, “Noise of Solid-State Lasers,” in Solid-State Lasers and Applications, Alphan Sennaroglu, editor. (CRC, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2007), chapter 12.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein, Laser Physics and Applications, Subvolume B: Laser Systems, Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, R. Poprawe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33–167.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Kellner, T.

Kilius, J.

Killi, A.

Kleinow, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klenner, A.

Koenig, S.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, U. Keller, “Solitary-pulse stabilization and shortening in actively mode-locked lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 486–496 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kränkel, C.

Krausz, F.

Kuroda, K.

Langrock, C.

Leclin, G. L.

Leuthold, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

Lin, Y. W.

Link, S. M.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Liu, X.

Loiseau, P.

Ludwig, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luther, G. G.

Lutz, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Magni, V.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 34, 61–70 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mangold, M.

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Marchese, S. V.

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marculescu, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marsden, J. E.

Martin, M. J.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 4, 197–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

Moeller, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Moses, J.

Mottay, E.

Narkiss, N.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebendahl, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nishina, J.

Oehler, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ostinelli, O.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, H. Telle, U. Keller, “Noise of Solid-State Lasers,” in Solid-State Lasers and Applications, Alphan Sennaroglu, editor. (CRC, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2007), chapter 12.

Pelc, J. S.

Pervak, V.

Petit, J.

Petropoulos, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, C. R.

Pirzio, F.

Pronin, O.

Qian, L.

Razskazovskaya, O.

Reali, G.

Resan, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ricaud, S.

Robbins, J. M.

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical-crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roeger, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

Said, A.

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saraceno, C.

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saraceno, C. J.

Schellinger, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

Schilt, S.

Schmogrow, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schriber, C.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order χ(2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Optics Communications 142, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimura, T.

Sieber, O. D.

Spielmann, C.

Spühler, G.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, L. Torner, “χ(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Südmeyer, T.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 9–12 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 21, 24770–24780 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Golling, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAM mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin disk laser with 62 fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3842–3845 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18, 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Marchese, C. R. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16, 6397–6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suganuma, A.

Sutter, D. H.

Szipöcs, R.

Telle, H.

R. Paschotta, H. Telle, U. Keller, “Noise of Solid-State Lasers,” in Solid-State Lasers and Applications, Alphan Sennaroglu, editor. (CRC, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2007), chapter 12.

Tikhonravov, A. V.

Tilma, B. W.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Torner, L.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, L. Torner, “χ(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Tropper, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Physics Reports 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trubetskov, M. K.

Ulvila, V.

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vainio, M.

Valiulis, G.

Vallaitis, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
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Viana, B.

Voss, A.

Weichelt, B.

Weingarten, K.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
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Wentsch, K.

Winter, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
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Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

Witte, S.

S. Witte, K. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric Chirped-Pulse amplification,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 18, 296–307 (2012).
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Wittwer, V. J.

Ye, J.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
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Yost, D. C.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
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Zaouter, Y.

Zaugg, C. A.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 34, 61–70 (1998).
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Zawischa, I.

Zhang, G.

Applied Physics B (4)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Applied Physics B 100, 15–28 (2010).
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R. Paschotta, R. Hring, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. Tropper, U. Keller, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 75, 445–451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Applied Physics B 88, 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. Spühler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Applied Physics B 80, 151–158 (2005).
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Applied Physics Letters (1)

A. Agnesi, A. Guandalini, G. Reali, “Self-stabilized and dispersion-compensated passively mode-locked Yb:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Applied Physics Letters 86, 171105 (2005).
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IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

R. DeSalvo, A. Said, D. Hagan, E. Van Stryland, M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
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IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

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F. O. Ilday, K. Beckwitt, Y.-F. Chen, H. Lim, F. W. Wise, “Controllable raman-like nonlinearities from nonstationary, cascaded quadratic processes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 376–383 (2004).
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G. G. Luther, M. S. Alber, J. E. Marsden, J. M. Robbins, “Geometric analysis of optical frequency conversion and its control in quadratic nonlinear media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 932–941 (2000).
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C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
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F. O. Ilday, F. W. Wise, “Nonlinearity management: a route to high-energy soliton fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 470–476 (2002).
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S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B51–B62 (2010).
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Nature Photonics (2)

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nature Photonics 2, 355–359 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast fourier transform processing,” Nature Photonics 5, 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

A. Klenner, M. Golling, U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express 21, 10351–10357 (2013).
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S. V. Marchese, C. R. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16, 6397–6407 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, U. Keller, T. Südmeyer, “Phase-stabilization of the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 21, 24770–24780 (2013).
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V. Pervak, O. Pronin, O. Razskazovskaya, J. Brons, I. B. Angelov, M. K. Trubetskov, A. V. Tikhonravov, F. Krausz, “High-dispersive mirrors for high power applications,” Opt. Express 20, 4503–4508 (2012).
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D. Bauer, I. Zawischa, D. H. Sutter, A. Killi, T. Dekorsy, “Mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator with 41 μJ pulse energy at 145 W average infrared power and high power frequency conversion,” Opt. Express 20, 9698–9704 (2012).
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C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20, 23535–23541 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, D. J. H. C. Maas, V. J. Wittwer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Experimental verification of soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express 18, 10143–10153 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agnesi, A. Greborio, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, J. A. der Au, A. Guandalini, “40-fs Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser pumped by a single-mode 350-mW laser diode,” Opt. Express 20, 10077–10082 (2012).
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C. R. Phillips, L. Gallmann, M. M. Fejer, “Design of quasi-phasematching gratings via convex optimization,” Opt. Express 21, 10139–10159 (2013).
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C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phasematched waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 18754–18773 (2011).
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A. Agnesi, L. Carrà, F. Pirzio, G. Reali, “Femtosecond Nd:glass oscillator operating in normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 16, 9549–9553 (2008).
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C. R. Phillips, M. M. Fejer, “Adiabatic optical parametric oscillators: steady-state and dynamical behavior,” Opt. Express 20, 2466–2482 (2012).
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C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, J. Jiang, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3912–3914 (2011).
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V. Ulvila, C. R. Phillips, L. Halonen, M. Vainio, “Frequency comb generation by a continuous-wave-pumped optical parametric oscillator based on cascading quadratic nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4281–4284 (2013).
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C. R. Phillips, M. M. Fejer, “Efficiency and phase of optical parametric amplification in chirped quasi-phase-matched gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3093–3095 (2010).
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B. Braun, F. Heine, T. Kellner, C. Hönninger, G. Zhang, G. Huber, U. Keller, “Efficient intracavity frequency doubling of a passively mode-locked diode-pumped neodymium lanthanum scandium borate laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1567–1569 (1996).
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A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Golling, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAM mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin disk laser with 62 fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3842–3845 (2013).
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Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. L. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 119–121 (2006).
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S. Ricaud, A. Jaffres, K. Wentsch, A. Suganuma, B. Viana, P. Loiseau, B. Weichelt, M. Abdou-Ahmed, A. Voss, T. Graf, D. Rytz, C. Hönninger, E. Mottay, P. Georges, F. Druon, “Femtosecond Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin-disk oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3984–3986 (2012).
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C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 9–12 (2014).
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Optical and Quantum Electronics (1)

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, L. Torner, “χ(2) cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order χ(2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Optics Communications 142, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Physics Reports (1)

U. Keller, A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Physics Reports 429, 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2)

K. Kato, “Temperature-tuned 90° phase-matching properties of LiB3O5,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 30, 2950–2952 (1994).
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M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, V. Magni, “Mode locking by cascading of second-order nonlinearities,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 34, 61–70 (1998).
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F. Krausz, M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
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Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

S. Witte, K. Eikema, “Ultrafast optical parametric Chirped-Pulse amplification,” Selected Topics in IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 18, 296–307 (2012).
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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (4)

F. X. Kärtner, I. Jung, U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 540–556 (1996).
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U. Keller, K. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. Heckl, C. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: Design guidelines and damage thresholds,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 18, 29–41 (2012).
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N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, “Theory of double-chirped mirrors,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 4, 197–208 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein, Laser Physics and Applications, Subvolume B: Laser Systems, Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, R. Poprawe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33–167.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate tuning from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express (to be published).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008, 3rd edition).

R. Paschotta, H. Telle, U. Keller, “Noise of Solid-State Lasers,” in Solid-State Lasers and Applications, Alphan Sennaroglu, editor. (CRC, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 2007), chapter 12.

A. Greborio, A. Guandalini, J. Aus der Au, “Sub-100 fs pulses with 12.5-W from Yb:CALGO based oscillators,” in “Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series,”, vol. 8235 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series(2012), vol. 8235 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Real and imaginary parts of the transfer function H(Φ) defined in Eq. (9b), as a function of phase Φ ∼ ΔkL. (a) Profile of H, showing phase-matched and phase-mismatched regions, and the decay of the real and imaginary parts towards the region of large positive phase mismatch. (b) The same function as (a), but plotted over a different region and with a smaller y-scale; the vertical dashed and dash-dotted lines indicate the values of ΔkL/π for SHG of three different wavelengths in LBO (cut at zero degrees, with 1064-nm phase-matching at 149 °C); in our experiments we operate near 1050 nm, so in the region between the vertical black lines. (c) The transfer function zoomed into this region, and plotted as a function of wavelength rather than phase. To show its oscillatory character, the imaginary (loss-related) part has been multiplied by 50. The real part also oscillates, but with small relative amplitude in this region. Note, also, that in the nonlinear response of the FH [Eq. (8)], H takes argument Φ(kx, Ω), where this frequency-dependent accumulated phase mismatch is given by Eq. (5). As such, the complex form of H depicted in these figures can be applied both in the spatial and temporal domains.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Phase mismatch Δk and nonlinear refractive index n 2 N L as a function of LBO crystal temperature for a center wavelength of 1050 nm, assuming an angle of ϕ = 2°. Both the assumed intrinsic χ(3)-related n 2 N L , and the total effective n 2 N L from both cascading and χ(3), are shown. (b) Nonlinear losses and SPM as a function of phase mismatch Δk, for a particular laser configuration, with parameters chosen based on our experiments (see section 5). Estimates of the SPM from the LBO crystal as well the total SPM are shown; this total SPM includes contributions from the LBO crystal, the Yb:CALGO gain crystal, and a small contribution from the YAG Brewster plate. The dashed vertical line shows the values of Δk at which ΔkLGVM = 2π (where we would expect GVM-related effects to be significant). The dot-dashed vertical line indicates the Δk value corresponding to a temperature of 80 °C, which is relevant to our experiments. Note that we operate very far from theΔkLGVM = 2π condition. (a) shows that the intrinsic χ(3) nonlinearity of LBO cannot be ignored for our case, and (b) shows the trade-off between nonlinear losses and SPM, and that the SPM from the gain crystal cannot be ignored either.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the laser. The pump beam goes through the laser cavity end mirror M1 and is coupled out through mirror M2. Given the chosen beam size in the gain crystal, mirrors M2–M5 yield a small spot size in the LBO crystal, while mirrors M6–M8 ensure a larger spot size on the SESAM, necessary not to over-saturate it. The resulting spot sizes are given in the text. The cavity was designed to obtain these beam sizes without being too sensitive to length offsets or close to the edge of stability. The mirror curvatures are as follows: RM2 = 150 mm; RM3 = 400 mm; RM5 = 300 mm; RM7 = 200 mm; remaining mirrors: flat. All laser cavity mirrors M1–M7 are standard highly reflective Bragg mirrors without any GDD within the pulse spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characterization of the SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO laser performance, operating in the soliton modelocking regime using positive intracavity GDD and an effective “negative SPM” via phase-mismatched SHG in LBO. The LBO crystal temperature was set to 80 °C. (a) SHG autocorrelation of the 1050-nm laser output. (b) Optical spectrum, measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. (c) Radio frequency (RF) spectrum, showing several harmonics within the bandwidth of the RF amplifier following a high-speed photodiode. RBW: resolution bandwidth. (d) RF spectrum, zoomed into the first harmonic.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scans of laser modelocked operation as a function of various parameters, for several different temperatures of the LBO crystal. (a) Pulse duration versus laser average output power. (b) Generated SHG as a function of output power. (c) Nonlinear losses associated with the SHG process shown in (b), plotted versus intracavity peak power, showing a near-linear dependence for each temperature. The pulse durations for higher temperatures (e.g. 90 °C) are limited by the transition to multi-pulsed regime at higher powers. For lower temperatures (e.g. 60 °C), we limited the pump power used in order to minimize the chance of damaging the input coupling mirror M1. (d) Nonlinear losses shown in (c), but with a rescaled x-axis to confirm the theoretically-predicted 1/Δk2-dependence of these losses.

Equations (19)

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n 2 casc = 1 Δ k 0 4 π d eff 2 n 1 2 n 2 λ 1 ε 0 c ,
( z + D ^ 1 ) A 1 = i κ 1 A 2 A 1 * e i Δ k 0 z
( z + D ^ 2 ) A 2 = i κ 2 A 1 2 e i Δ k 0 z ,
D ^ j = ρ j x + δ j t i β j 2 2 t 2 ,
Δ k ( Ω a , Ω b ) = k 2 ( ω 2 + Ω a + Ω b ) k 1 ( ω 1 + Ω a ) k 1 ( ω 1 + Ω b )
Δ k 0 + ( δ 2 δ 1 ) ( Ω a + Ω b ) ,
Φ ( z , k x , Ω ) = [ Δ k 0 + ( δ 2 δ 1 ) Ω + ( ρ 2 ρ 1 ) k x ] z .
A ˜ 2 ( z = L , k x , Ω ) = i κ 2 L e i ( ρ 2 k x + δ 2 Ω ) L exp [ i Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) ] 1 i Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) x , t [ A 1 2 ( z = 0 , x , t ) ]
A 2 ( L , x , t ) = κ 2 Δ k 0 [ A 1 2 ( 0 , x + ρ 1 L , t + δ 1 L ) e i Δ k 0 L A 1 2 ( 0 , x + ρ 2 L , t + δ 2 L ) ] .
A 1 ( L , x ρ 1 L , t δ 1 L ) = A 1 ( 0 , x , t ) i L A 1 * ( 0 , x , t ) x , t 1 [ x , t [ A 1 2 ] Q ] ( 0 , x , t ) ,
Q ( k x , Ω ) = κ 1 κ 2 L ( e i Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) 1 i Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) 2 + 1 Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) )
κ 1 κ 2 L H ( Φ ( L , k x , Ω ) )
A 2 ( 1 ) ( z , x , t ) = κ 2 Δ k 0 [ ( A 1 ( 0 ) ( z , x , t ) ) 2 e i Δ k 0 z a 2 ( 1 ) ( z , x , t ) ]
( z + D ^ 1 ) A 1 ( 0 ) = i κ 1 κ 2 Δ k 0 | A 1 ( 0 ) | 2 A 1 ( 0 ) + κ 1 κ 2 Δ k 0 2 [ 2 | A 1 ( 0 ) | 2 D ^ 1 ( A 1 ( 0 ) ) A 1 ( 0 ) * D ^ 2 ( ( A 1 ( 0 ) ) 2 ) ]
a N L = 4 3 ω 1 2 d eff 2 n 1 2 n 2 ε 0 c 3 I 1 , p k Δ k 0 2 ,
A 1 A 1 ( 0 ) + κ 1 κ 2 Δ k 0 2 e i Δ k 0 L A 1 ( 0 ) * a 2 ( 1 ) .
a N L = 4 3 Δ k 0 L ϕ N L ,
L > L wo > L coh
L > L G V M > L coh

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