Abstract

The possibility of creating filaments with laser wavelengths ranging from 800 nm to 2.4 µm was investigated using an OPA laser system. Zinc Selenide’s (ZnSe) unique characteristics – small band gap EgZnSe=2.67eV and positive dispersion for this wavelength range – are well suited for filamentation study where multi-photon absorption can be achieved with two to six photons.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Kudyshev, M. C. Richardson, N. M. Litchinitser, “Virtual hyperbolic metamaterials for manipulating radar signals in air,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Degoda, A. O. Sofienko, “Specific features of the luminescence and conductivity of zinc selenide on exposure to X-ray and optical excitation,” Semiconductors 44(5), 568–574 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2601–2603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(20), 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: Theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

Akozbek, N.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baudelet, M.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(4), 637–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(20), 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buersing, H.

Carbonnel, J.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chapuis, D.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(4), 637–650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(20), 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiron, A.

Couairon, A.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2601–2603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Miscault, J. C.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Degoda, V. Y.

V. Y. Degoda, A. O. Sofienko, “Specific features of the luminescence and conductivity of zinc selenide on exposure to X-ray and optical excitation,” Semiconductors 44(5), 568–574 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Durand, M.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durécu, A.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eberle, B.

Esmiller, B.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forestier, B.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forget, N.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

Grabielle, S.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, H.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, D.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarnac, A.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jukna, V.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

Kawano, H.

Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, M.

Kudyshev, Z. A.

Z. A. Kudyshev, M. C. Richardson, N. M. Litchinitser, “Virtual hyperbolic metamaterials for manipulating radar signals in air,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouroux, B.

Landwehr, G.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Nevé, M.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Litchinitser, N. M.

Z. A. Kudyshev, M. C. Richardson, N. M. Litchinitser, “Virtual hyperbolic metamaterials for manipulating radar signals in air,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: Theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McKee, E.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

Méjean, G.

Midorikawa, K.

Moustaizis, S. D.

Mysyrowicz, A.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2601–2603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Lamouroux, A. Chiron, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, S. D. Moustaizis, “Nonlinear propagation of subpicosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(17), 1270–1272 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagura, C.

Nazarov, M. V.

M. V. Nazarov, “Cathodoluminescencedefectoscopy of ZnS and ZnSe crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91–92, 349–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

Pan, H.

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

Prade, B.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. André, G. Méchain, G. Méjean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Wöste, J.-P. Wolf, “Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5757–5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, H. Buersing, B. Eberle, M. Krenz, D. Seiffer, O. Vasseur, “Spatial mode cleaning by femtosecond filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2601–2603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Lamouroux, A. Chiron, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, S. D. Moustaizis, “Nonlinear propagation of subpicosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(17), 1270–1272 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Revel, I.

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

Z. A. Kudyshev, M. C. Richardson, N. M. Litchinitser, “Virtual hyperbolic metamaterials for manipulating radar signals in air,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohwetter, P.

Roy, G.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Salmon, E.

Sauerbrey, R.

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schüll, K.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seiffer, D.

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siche, D.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simard, P. T.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sofienko, A. O.

V. Y. Degoda, A. O. Sofienko, “Specific features of the luminescence and conductivity of zinc selenide on exposure to X-ray and optical excitation,” Semiconductors 44(5), 568–574 (2010).
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Stelmaszczyk, K.

Suda, A.

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, Y.

Tzortzakis, S.

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasseur, O.

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

Wenisch, H.

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

Wöste, L.

Wu, J.

Xu, Z.

Yang, X.

Young, J.

Yu, J.

Zeng, H.

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Wu, Y. Peng, Y. Tong, P. Lu, L. Ding, Z. Xu, H. Zeng, “Plasma waveguide array induced by filament interaction,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3806–3808 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Adv. (1)

B. Forestier, A. Houard, I. Revel, M. Durand, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, A. Jarnac, J. Carbonnel, M. Le Nevé, J. C. de Miscault, B. Esmiller, D. Chapuis, A. Mysyrowicz, “Triggering, guiding and deviation of long air spark discharges with femtosecond laser filament,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012151 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Akozbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, U. Keller, “Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79(6), 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Liu, W. Li, H. Pan, H. Zeng, “Two-dimensional plasma grating by non-collinear femtosecond filament interaction in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, H. Schroeder, “The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges,” Can. J. Phys. 83(9), 863–905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

M. V. Nazarov, “Cathodoluminescencedefectoscopy of ZnS and ZnSe crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91–92, 349–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. A. Kudyshev, M. C. Richardson, N. M. Litchinitser, “Virtual hyperbolic metamaterials for manipulating radar signals in air,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2557 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043820 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. (1)

F. Théberge, W. Liu, P. T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, “Plasma density inside a femtosecond laser filament in air: Strong dependence on external focusing,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys. 74(3), 036406 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, S. L. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(20), 4406–4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Durand, S. Chen, A. Houard, B. Prade, B. Forestier, A. Mysyrowicz, “Energy exchange between femtosecond laser filaments in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(5), 055003 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: Theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. Wenisch, K. Schüll, D. Hommel, G. Landwehr, D. Siche, H. Hartmann, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of ZnSe on (001) ZnSe substrates and its application in light-emitting diodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11(1), 107–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Semiconductors (1)

V. Y. Degoda, A. O. Sofienko, “Specific features of the luminescence and conductivity of zinc selenide on exposure to X-ray and optical excitation,” Semiconductors 44(5), 568–574 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Handbook of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2009), Vol. 4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersion, refractive index and non-linear refractive index of ZnSe [2,22,23].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized laser spectrum before and after propagation/filamentation in the ZnSe crystal for λ 0 = 800 n m and λ 0 = 1200 n m . In insert: Photography of the front face of the crystal, illustrating the blue light resulting from two photons absorption for λ 0 = 800 n m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoluminescence spectra measured from the side of the filament for different laser wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photography by the side face of the crystal bulk. One can see the photoluminescence for different wavelength (a) 1.15 µm (b) 1.2 µm (c) 1.4 µm (d) 1.7µm (e) 1.9 µm (f) 2 µm (g) 2.4 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral broadening Δ ω = Δ ω f i l a m e n t Δ ω 0 as a function of number of photons needed for ionization, for each initial wavelength used for filamentation.

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