Abstract

We investigate the effect of noise loading in a hybrid phase-sensitive amplifier system, analyzing the effect of noise beating between the signal and idler waves coupled in a parametric amplifier. Through analyzing input and output optical signal to noise ratios, we find that system performance of a phase-sensitive amplifier is 3 to 6 dB improved over a phase-insensitive amplifier, depending on the ratio of loaded noise power to that of vacuum fluctuations.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

2012 (5)

2011 (2)

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2005 (3)

1999 (1)

S.-K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 1938–1941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1993 (2)

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Grangier, “Reduction of quantum noise in optical parametric amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2233–2238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abram, I.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Grangier, “Reduction of quantum noise in optical parametric amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2233–2238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P.

S. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

Andrekson, P. A.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

Asobe, M.

Bogris, A.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum limits on noise in linear amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

Choi, S.-K.

S.-K. Choi, M. Vasilyev, P. Kumar, “Noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 1938–1941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A.

Corcoran, B.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

Devaux, F.

A. Mosset, F. Devaux, E. Lantz, “Spatially noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devgan, P. S.

DiGiovanni, D.

Ellis, A.

Fayolle, P.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishteyn, M.

Gallo, K.

Garreau, J. C.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Grangier, “Reduction of quantum noise in optical parametric amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2233–2238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kakande, J.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalogerakis, G.

Karlsson, M.

S. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, Z. Tong, “Field-quadrature and photon-number correlations produced by parametric processes,” Opt. Express 18, 19792–19823 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kumar, P.

Kuo, B.

Lantz, E.

A. Mosset, F. Devaux, E. Lantz, “Spatially noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasri, J.

Lee, K. J.

Lei, G.

Levenson, J.

Levenson, J. A.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Grangier, “Reduction of quantum noise in optical parametric amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2233–2238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Lovering, D.

Lundström, C.

S. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

Malik, R.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M.

Marhic, M. E.

Mazroa, D.

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Miyamoto, Y.

Mosset, A.

A. Mosset, F. Devaux, E. Lantz, “Spatially noiseless optical amplification of images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 223603 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

Olsson, S.

Olsson, S. L. I.

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phelan, R.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

Richardson, D.

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richter, T.

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

Rivera, T.

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Grangier, “Reduction of quantum noise in optical parametric amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2233–2238 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Levenson, I. Abram, T. Rivera, P. Fayolle, J. C. Garreau, P. Grangier, “Quantum optical cloning amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 267–270 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Schubert, C.

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

Shinada, S.

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sköld, M.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slavík, R.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sygletos, S.

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, “Phase sensitive amplification with noise figure below the 3 dB quantum limit using CW pumped PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 13164–13172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, Y. Miyamoto, H. Takenouchi, “First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2013(2013), PDP1.C5.

Takara, H.

Takenouchi, H.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, Y. Miyamoto, H. Takenouchi, “Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” Opt. Express 21, 18170–18177 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, Y. Miyamoto, H. Takenouchi, “First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2013(2013), PDP1.C5.

Tang, R.

Taunay, T.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Tkach, R.

Tong, Z.

Umeki, T.

Vasilyev, M.

Vidakovic, P.

Wada, N.

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

Westlund, M.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiberg, A.

Winzer, P.

Wong, K. K.-Y.

Zhu, B.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 859–869 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 1016–1032 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, H. Takara, Y. Miyamoto, H. Takenouchi, “Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA,” Opt. Express 21, 18170–18177 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, S. Liu, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, K. Gallo, D. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 20393–20400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Umeki, H. Takara, Y. Miyamoto, M. Asobe, “3-dB signal-ASE beat noise reduction of coherent multi-carrier signal utilizing phase sensitive amplification,” Opt. Express 20, 24727–24734 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, C. Lundström, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Vasilyev, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Modeling and measurement of the noise figure of a cascaded non-degenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 18, 14820–14835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, Z. Tong, “Field-quadrature and photon-number correlations produced by parametric processes,” Opt. Express 18, 19792–19823 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, “Phase sensitive amplification with noise figure below the 3 dB quantum limit using CW pumped PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 20, 13164–13172 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Tang, J. Lasri, P. S. Devgan, V. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, M. Vasilyev, “Gain characteristics of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifier with phase self-stabilized input,” Opt. Express 13, 10483–10493 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Olsson, B. Corcoran, C. Lundström, E. Tipsuwannakul, S. Sygletos, A. Ellis, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Injection locking-based pump recovery for phase-sensitive amplified links,” Opt. Express 21, 14512–14529 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, A. Chraplyvy, R. Tkach, B. Zhu, T. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. DiGiovanni, “Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime,” Opt. Express 20, 19088–19095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tong, A. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. Kuo, N. Alic, S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20, 19363–19373 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lei, M. Marhic, “Performance investigation of a hybrid fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Express 21, 21932–21940 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Technol Lett. (1)

C. Lundström, R. Malik, L. Grüner-Nielsen, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, “Fiber optic parametric amplifier with 10-dB net gain without pump dithering,” Photonics Technol Lett. 25, 234–237 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

B. J. Puttnam, D. Mazroa, S. Shinada, N. Wada, “Large phase sensitive gain in periodically poled lithium niobate with high pump power,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 23, 426–428 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Other (3)

B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, P. Andrekson, “Phase-sensitive optical pre-amplifier implemented in an 80km DQPSK link,” in Proc. OFC 2012(2012), PDP5A.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, Y. Miyamoto, H. Takenouchi, “First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2013(2013), PDP1.C5.

T. Richter, B. Corcoran, S. L. I. Olsson, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, C. Schubert, P. A. Andrekson, “Experimental characterization of a phase-sensitive four-mode fiber-optic parametric amplifier,” in Proc. ECOC 2012(2012), Th.1.F.1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up. Sections enclosed by dotted lines were removed for back-to-back tests. VOA: variable optical attenuator, Pol.: polarizer

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra at input (solid) and output (dashed) of the second FOPA, for both PI (left) and PS (right) operation. Resolution was set to 0.1 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured input and output OSNRs for various levels of noise loading between the two FOPAs, with the second FOPA operating in PI (blue squares) and PS (red triangles) modes. The solid black line is for equal input and output OSNRs, the dotted lines the expected value for output OSNR in the vacuum noise dominant regime. Input power in the signal waveband is a constant −27dBm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in output OSNR of the second FOPA, PS/PI mode. The points represent change in OSNR interpolated from measured data, with the solid and dashed blue lines representing theoretical predictions for an ideal system and one with the measured 5.5dB PS/PI gain difference, respectively. Input power in the signal waveband is a constant −27dBm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER curves at high noise loading.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Self-homodyne constellation measurements of the QPSK signal out of the PI and PS FOPAs for 15dB input OSNR.

Equations (10)

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[ E sig , out E idl , out * ] = [ μ ν ν * μ * ] [ E sig , in E idl , in * ]
P vac | δ λ = 0.1 n m = h ν / 2 δ ν = 0.8 n W = 61 d B m
OSNR x = | A x | 2 / ( P vac | δ λ = 0.1 n m + P x , load | δ λ = 0.1 n m )
E sig , out = G [ ( A sig + n sig , load + n sig , vac ) + ( A sig * + n idl , load + n idl , vac ) * ]
= G [ 2 A sig + n sig , load + n sig , vac + n idl , load * + n idl , vac * ]
OSNR sig , PSA = 4 | A sig | 2 / ( P sig , load + P sig , vac + P idl , load + P idl , vac )
E sig , out = G [ A sig + n sig , load + n sig , vac + n idl , vac * ]
OSNR sig , PIA = | A sig | 2 / ( P sig , load + P sig , vac + P idl , vac )
Δ OSNR = 4 ( 2 + P load / P vac 2 + 2 P load / P vac )
Δ OSNR = G PSA G PIA ( 2 + P load / P vac 2 + 2 P load / P vac )

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