Abstract

We report the ultrashort-pulse Cr:ZnS laser mode-locked by graphene-based saturable absorber mirror. Using the combination of bulk material and a chirped mirror, we demonstrate the shortest reported so far mid-IR pulses of only 5.1 optical cycles (41 fs) centered at 2.4 µm with 190 nm spectral bandwidth. The pulse spectrum almost completely fills the water-free atmospheric window. The output parameters reach 2.3 nJ pulse energy and 250 mW average output power at 108 MHz repetition rate.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), MW1C.4.
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. de Souza, W. Y. Jan, J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20(12), 1406–1408 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picque, “Sensitive multiplex spectroscopy in the molecular fingerprint 2.4 µm region with a Cr2+:ZnSe femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16540–16545 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, “Soliton absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

1996

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aus Der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Cunningham, J. E.

de Souza, E. A.

Dresselhaus, G.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

Jia, X.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, V. L.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, “Soliton absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Knox, W. H.

Kong, J.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Malard, L. M.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandon, J.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nezich, D.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picque, N.

Pimenta, M. A.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reina, A.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sennaroglu, A.

Son, H.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D.-I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, J. Aus Der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman spectroscopy in graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, “Soliton absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44(6), 1082–1091 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), MW1C.4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser. FL is the pump focusing lens (f′ = 40 mm), M2 and M3 are the highly-reflective concave mirrors, CM is the concave chirped mirror, GSA is the graphene-based saturable absorber mirror, DC is the YAG wedge pair, OC is the output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the graphene saturable absorber mirror with 1, 2, and 3 graphene layers on a mirror surface. (b) Raman spectra, recorded in the three positions with different number of layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective light field distribution for λ = 2380 nm near the HR mirror surface and in the surface layers. The black thick line denotes position of graphene absorber at the top of the upper layer, giving filed intensity of 2.4 normalized to the intensity of the incident wave.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Main characteristics of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 18% output coupling. (a) input-output characteristics with single- and multi-pulsing regions shown, (b) evolution of the pulse spectrum while increasing the pump power; (c) interferometric autocorrelation trace of laser pulse at maximum output power in single-pulse regime; (d) self-starting behavior of the laser with optical chopper inside the cavity; (e) beam profile of the mode-locked laser output at maximum output power in single-pulse regime.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Laser spectrum of graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with advanced dispersion compensation, cavity round-trip GDD and atmospheric absorption; (b) Interferometric autocorrelation of the shortest laser pulses; (c) Simulated autocorrelation retrieved from the widest spectrum .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spectra of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with nitrogen purging; (b) Interferometric autocorrelation of the shortest laser pulses at 25% r.h. At lower humidity the laser operated at too much intracavity energy, resulting in periodic switching to multi-pulse operation. The spectrum becomes a sum of a broad single-pulse spectrum and much narrower multiple pulse spectrum peak at 2.4 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The cavity setup of the graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser without additional focusing on the graphene-based mirror; (b) Interferometric autocorrelation of the laser pulses; (c) Laser spectrum and cavity round-trip GDD.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Laser Characteristics of Graphene Mode-locked Cr:ZnS Laser

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