Abstract

We report quantitative determination of elemental distribution in binary compounds with nano meter scale spatial resolution using x-ray Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging (FCDI). We show that the quantitative magnitude and phase values of the x-ray wave exiting an object determined by FCDI can be utilized to obtain full-field atomic density maps of each element independently. The proposed method was demonstrated by reconstructing the density maps of Pt and NiO in a Pt-NiO binary compound with about 18 nm spatial resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  2. H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442, 63–66 (2006).
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  5. P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys. 12, 035020 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, and M. A. Pfeifer, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapire, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, and M. A. Pfeifer, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys. 12, 035020 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Mater. 8, 291–298 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3342–3348 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442, 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapire, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, J. E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. O. Hodgson, “Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10-nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 012201 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, and D. Sayre, “An approach to three-dimensional structures of biomolecules by using single-molecule diffraction images,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98(12), 6641–6645 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Altissimo, M.

Amonette, J. E.

J. Miao, J. E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. O. Hodgson, “Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10-nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 012201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arenz, M.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barraza, J.

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapire, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beetz, T.

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benson, C.

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bergh, M.

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H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalbfleisch, S.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kewish, C. M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khounsary, A. M.

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. S.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ko, E.-Y.

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kohmura, Y.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kubo, H.

Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuhlmann, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kunishima, N.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. C.

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin, T. M.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

London, R. A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lucas, C. A.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macrander, A. T.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maia, F. R.N.C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mao, W. L.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Marathe, S.

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Marchesini, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapire, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1179–1200 (2006).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Markovic, N. M.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsubara, E.

Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mayrhofer, K. J. J.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Menzel, A.

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, J. E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. O. Hodgson, “Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10-nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 012201 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, and D. Sayre, “An approach to three-dimensional structures of biomolecules by using single-molecule diffraction images,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98(12), 6641–6645 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mohanty, J.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moller, T.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mun, B. S.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naitow, H.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, D.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S.

S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nazaretski, E.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, J. E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. O. Hodgson, “Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10-nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 012201 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noh, D. Y.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
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Tripathi, A.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trtik, P.

A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tschentscher, T.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der Spoel, D.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vartanyants, I. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442, 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vine, D. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, and M. A. Pfeifer, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K. L.

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weierstall, U.

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
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Whitehead, L.

Williams, G. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, and M. A. Pfeifer, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys. 12, 035020 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, B. Chen, K. A. Nugent, C. Hall, W. Fullagar, S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Use of a complex constraint in coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1981–1993 (2010).
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J. N. Clark, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, L. Whitehead, M. D. de Jonge, E. Hanssen, M. Altissimo, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Quantitative phase measurement in coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3342–3348 (2008).
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B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442, 63–66 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, Y.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
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Woods, B. W.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, T.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
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Yamauchi, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
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Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
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Yan, H.

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
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Yang, W.

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettsu, N.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

E.-Y. Ko, E. D. Park, H. C. Lee, D. Lee, and S. Kim, “Supported Pt-Co catalysts for selective CO oxidation in a hydrogen-rich stream,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 734–737 (2007).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiscale element mapping of buried structures by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131905 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 214101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nanoscale (1)

H. C. Kang, H. Yan, Y. Chu, S. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. Nazaretski, C. Kim, O. Seo, D. Y. Noh, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Oxidation of PtNi nanoparticles studied by a scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope with multi-layer Laue lenses,” Nanoscale 5, 7184–7187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

V. R. Stamenkovic, B. S. Mun, M. Arenz, K. J. J. Mayrhofer, C. A. Lucas, G. Wang, P. N. Ross, and N. M. Markovic, “Trends in electrocatalysis on extended and nanoscale Pt-bimetallic alloy surfaces,” Nat. Mater. 6, 241–247 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Mater. 8, 291–298 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless x-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 833–839 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (2)

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plonjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Dusterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Moller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R.N.C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szoke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442, 63–66 (2006).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. M. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic x-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys. 12, 035020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

J. Miao, J. E. Amonette, Y. Nishino, T. Ishikawa, and K. O. Hodgson, “Direct determination of the absolute electron density of nanostructured and disordered materials at sub-10-nm resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 012201 (2003).
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A. Diaz, P. Trtik, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, and O. Bunk, “Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 020104 (2012).
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S. Kim, C. Kim, S. Lee, S. Marathe, D. Y. Noh, H. C. Kang, S. S. Kim, A. Sandy, and S. Narayanan, “Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 165437 (2010).
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Y. Takahashi, H. Kubo, H. Furukawa, K. Yamauchi, E. Matsubara, T. Ishikawa, and Y. Nishino, “Element-specific hard x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 092105 (2008).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 025506 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Song, R. Bergstrom, D. Ramunno-Johnson, H. Jiang, D. Paterson, M. D. de Jonge, I. McNulty, J. Lee, K. L. Wang, and J. Miao, “Nanoscale imaging of buried structures with elemental specificity using resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 025504 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, R. Xu, C-C. Ghen, W. Yang, J. Fan, X. Tao, C. Song, Y. Kohmura, T. Xiao, Y. Wong, Y. Fei, T. Ishikawa, W. L. Mao, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of molten iron in mantle olivine at nanoscale resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 205501 (2013).
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Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 018101 (2009).
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D. Nam, J. Park, M. Gallagher-Jones, S. S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kohmura, H. Naitow, N. Kunishima, T. Yoshida, T. Ishikawa, and C. Song, “Imaging fully hydrated whole cells by coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 098103 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (3)

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(33), 13393–13398 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, and D. Sayre, “An approach to three-dimensional structures of biomolecules by using single-molecule diffraction images,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98(12), 6641–6645 (2001).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. McNulty, A. M. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3372 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, and M. A. Pfeifer, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7–2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033703 (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic experimental setup of the Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging employed in this work. A Fresnel zone plate focuses the incident x-ray beam into a curved beam. The object exit plane is defined just downstream of an object.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SEM image of the Pt-NiO binary compound specimen used in this experiment. The dotted line indicates the boundary of the x-ray illumination. (b) Coherent diffraction pattern recorded by the CCD. An attenuator was used to reduce the intensity of the holographic region in the diffraction pattern, so as to record it together with the much weaker high-angle diffraction data. The inset shows the hologram of the sample. (c,d) Image of the phase (c) and logarithm of the magnitude (d) of the object exit wave reconstructed from the diffraction pattern shown in (b). Particles marked by 1, 2, and 3 were analyzed to obtain elemental maps.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a, b) Density map of NiO (a) and Pt (b) integrated along the beam direction of the selected particles, 1, 2, and 3. They are calculated from the reconstructed phase and magnitude images. (c) SEM images of the corresponding particles obtained in the composition mode in which heavy Pt element is weighted more strongly.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Atomic scattering factors of Pt and NiO at x-ray energy of 2.185 keV

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ e ( x , y ) = ψ i ( x , y ) exp { 2 π i λ 0 d n c ( x , y , z ) d z }
δ ( x , y , z ) = r 0 λ 2 2 π i ρ i ( x , y , z ) f i R β ( x , y , z ) = r 0 λ 2 2 π i ρ i ( x , y , z ) f i I ,
A ( x , y ) = exp { λ r 0 i ρ i ( x , y ) ¯ f i I } ϕ ( x , y ) = λ r 0 i ρ i ( x , y ) ¯ f i R ,
( ϕ ( x , y ) ln A ( x , y ) ) = λ r 0 ( f A R f B R f A I f B I ) ( ρ A ( x , y ) ¯ ρ B ( x , y ) ¯ ) .

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