Abstract

We demonstrate intracavity frequency doubling of the self-Raman field generated within a diode end-pumped, solid state Nd:GdVO4 vortex laser. A maximum output power of 727 mW is generated at 586 nm with an overall diode-to-yellow conversion efficiency of 4%. Conservation of orbital angular momentum is observed under intracavity frequency doubling, with the topological charge of the yellow beam being twice that of the Stokes beam.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Lee, T. Omatsu, H. M. Pask, “Direct generation of a first-Stokes vortex laser beam from a self-Raman laser,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12401–12409 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

T. Yusufu, Y. Tokizane, M. Yamada, K. Miyamoto, T. Omatsu, “Tunable 2-μm optical vortex parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23666–23675 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kano, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of purely single transverse mode vortex beam from a He-Ne laser cavity with a spot-defect mirror,” Int. J. Opt. 2012, 359141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Matsumoto, T. Ando, T. Inoue, Y. Ohtake, N. Fukuchi, T. Hara, “Generation of high-quality higher-order Lagurre-Gaussian beams using liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(7), 1642–1651 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, “Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 167–170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Padgett, L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41(5), 275–285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup,” Opt. Mater. 11, 353–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

I. V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 604–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Padgett, L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41(5), 275–285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Almazov, A. A.

Ando, T.

Aoki, N.

Austin, W. L.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup,” Opt. Mater. 11, 353–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basistiy, I. V.

I. V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 604–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, “Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 167–170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chujo, K.

Dekker, P.

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elfstrom, H.

Fan, Y.-X.

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, N.

Furuki, K.

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

Hell, S. W.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huguenin, J. A. O.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Ito, A.

Itoh, M.

Kano, K.

K. Kano, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of purely single transverse mode vortex beam from a He-Ne laser cavity with a spot-defect mirror,” Int. J. Opt. 2012, 359141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khonina, S. N.

Khoury, A. Z.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V. V.

Kozawa, Y.

K. Kano, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of purely single transverse mode vortex beam from a He-Ne laser cavity with a spot-defect mirror,” Int. J. Opt. 2012, 359141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ito, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of hollow scalar and vector beams using a spot-defect mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(9), 2072–2077 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, Y. P.

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, “Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 167–170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. J.

Martinelli, M.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, N.

Mildren, R. P.

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, S.

Miyamoto, K.

Morita, R.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, K. Chujo, K. Miyamoto, M. Okida, K. Nakamura, N. Aoki, R. Morita, “Metal microneedle fabrication using twisted light with spin,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17967–17973 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, J. T.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup,” Opt. Mater. 11, 353–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Nussenzveig, P.

M. Martinelli, J. A. O. Huguenin, P. Nussenzveig, A. Z. Khoury, “Orbital angular momentum exchange in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 013812 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, Y.

Okida, M.

Omatsu, T.

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Padgett, L. Allen, “Light with a twist in its tail,” Contemp. Phys. 41(5), 275–285 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pask, H. M.

A. J. Lee, T. Omatsu, H. M. Pask, “Direct generation of a first-Stokes vortex laser beam from a self-Raman laser,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12401–12409 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Lee, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, H. M. Pask, “A wavelength-versatile, continuous-wave, self-Raman solid-state laser operating in the visible,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20013–20018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

A. J. Lee, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, H. M. Pask, “A wavelength-versatile, continuous-wave, self-Raman solid-state laser operating in the visible,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20013–20018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

J. T. Murray, W. L. Austin, R. C. Powell, “Intracavity Raman conversion and Raman beam cleanup,” Opt. Mater. 11, 353–371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.-Q.

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

K. Kano, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of purely single transverse mode vortex beam from a He-Ne laser cavity with a spot-defect mirror,” Int. J. Opt. 2012, 359141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ito, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of hollow scalar and vector beams using a spot-defect mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(9), 2072–2077 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamee, B.

Simpson, N. B.

K. Dholakia, N. B. Simpson, M. J. Padgett, L. Allen, “Second-harmonic generation and the orbital angular momentum of light,” Phys. Rev. A 54(5), R3742–R3745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soifer, V. A.

Soskin, M. S.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Tokizane, Y.

Toyoda, K.

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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I. V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 604–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Yan, Y.

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yan, B. Shamee, H. Huang, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “2 Tbit/s free-space data transmission on two orthogonal orbital-angular-momentum beams each carrying 25 WDM channels,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4753–4755 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusufu, T.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

Y. F. Chen, Y. P. Lan, S. C. Wang, “Generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser diode end-pumped lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 167–170 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 73–79 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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K. Kano, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, “Generation of purely single transverse mode vortex beam from a He-Ne laser cavity with a spot-defect mirror,” Int. J. Opt. 2012, 359141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

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[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Toyoda, K. Miyamoto, N. Aoki, R. Morita, T. Omatsu, “Using optical vortex to control the chirality of twisted metal nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3645–3649 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Wilner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun. 96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Basistiy, M. S. Soskin, M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optical wavefront dislocations and their properties,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 604–612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wang, J. Ding, J.-Q. Qin, J. Chen, Y.-X. Fan, H.-T. Wang, “Configurable three-dimensional optical cage generated from cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 282(17), 3421–3425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, R. P. Mildren, D. J. Spence, J. A. Piper, “Wavelength-versatile visible and UV sources based on crystalline Raman lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(3-4), 121–158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Lascad-Software for Laser Cavity Analysis and Design, available at www.lac-cad.com .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup showing layout of the laser resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power scaling properties of the yellow vortex emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial form of (a) the fundamental (1063 nm) field; (b) Stokes field; and yellow beams in (c) the near-field; and (d) the far-field (note the relatively feint outer ring structure in comparison to the central spot in the profile).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the fork interferogram of (a) Stokes; (b) yellow beams; and spiral interferograms of (c) the Stokes, and (d) yellow beams.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial forms of the second-harmonic of a self-Raman vortex laser produced under focussed extra-cavity SHG in NCPM LBO in (a) the near-field; and (b) far-field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity distribution of a simulated vortex mode comprised of two orthogonal Hermite-Gaussian modes with additional phase difference (Δ) of (a) π/25; (b) -π/25; and (c) 0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated intensity distribution of a frequency-doubled LG01 mode with (a) Δ = 0, in the near-field; (b) Δ = 0, in the far-field; (c) Δ = π/25, in the near-field; and (d) Δ = π/25, in the far-field.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ω = H G 10 + i H G 01 e i Δ
H G 10 = x exp ( x 2 + y 2 ω 2 )
H G 01 = y exp ( x 2 + y 2 ω 2 )
I ω = | E ω | 2 = | H G 10 | 2 + | H G 01 | 2 2 H G 10 H G 01 sin Δ = | H G 10 | 2 + | H G 01 | 2
E 2 ω = ( H G 10 + i H G 01 e i Δ ) 2 = x 2 exp ( 2 x 2 + y 2 ω 2 ) y 2 exp ( 2 x 2 + y 2 ω 2 ) e 2 i Δ + 2 i x y exp ( 2 x 2 +   y 2 ω 2 ) e i Δ
E 2 ω = H G 20 H G 02 e 2 i Δ + 2 i H G 11 e i Δ + 1 e 2 i Δ 2 H G 00
H G 20 = ( x 2 1 2 ) exp ( 2 x 2 + y 2 ω 2 )
H G 02 = ( y 2 1 2 ) exp ( 2 x 2 + y 2 ω 2 )
H G 11 = x y exp ( 2 x 2 + y 2 ω 2 )
δ m , n = ( m + n + 1 ) tan 1 ( z z R )
I 2 ω = | E 2 ω | 2 = | H G 20 | 2 + | H G 02 | 2 + 4 | H G 11 | 2 + Δ 2 | H G 00 | 2 2 ( 1 2 Δ 2 ) H G 20 H G 02 + 2 Δ 2 cos ( Δ δ ) ( H G 20 + H G 02 ) H G 00
sin Δ 0 , cos Δ 1 , sin 2 Δ Δ 2 , Δ δ = δ 1 , 1 δ 0 , 0 = δ 2 , 0 δ 0 , 0 = δ 0 , 2 δ 0 , 0

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