Abstract

We report on realization of buried waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramic media by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique and investigate the waveguides laser emission characteristics under the pump with fiber-coupled diode lasers. Laser pulses at 1.06 μm with energy of 2.8 mJ for the pump with pulses of 13.1-mJ energy and continuous-wave output power of 0.49 W with overall optical efficiency of 0.13 were obtained from a 100-μm diameter circular cladding waveguide realized in a 0.7-at.% Nd:YAG ceramic. A circular waveguide of 50-μm diameter yielded laser pulses at 1.3 μm with 1.2-mJ energy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser inscribed double-cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG crystal: a promising prototype for integrated lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3294–3297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

1996 (1)

Beecher, S.

Benayas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Brown, G.

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Dascalu, T.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Erbert, G.

Fiebig, C.

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, N.-O.

Hellmig, O.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

Jaque, D.

H. Liu, F. Chen, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, “Femtosecond-laser inscribed double-cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG crystal: a promising prototype for integrated lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3294–3297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Y. Jia, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser inscribed cladding waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics: Fabrication, fluorescence imaging and laser performance,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18620–18629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

Jipa, F.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Khrushchev, I.

Kränkel, C.

Lamela, J.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Lu, Q. M.

Lupei, V.

Metz, P.

Mezentsev, V.

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Müller, S.

Okhrimchuk, A.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Paschke, A.-G.

Paschke, K.

Pavel, N.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Pavel, V. Lupei, T. Taira, “1.34-mu m efficient laser emission in highly-doped Nd:YAG under 885-nm diode pumping,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7948–7953 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petermann, K.

Ren, Y.

Rodenas, A.

Y. Tan, A. Rodenas, F. Chen, R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, D. Jaque, Q. M. Lu, “70% slope efficiency from an ultrafast laser-written Nd:GdVO4 channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24994–24999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, A. Ródenas, S. Beecher, F. Chen, A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared waveguide lasers in rare-earth-doped YAG,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3339–3341 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Salamu, G.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A.

Shestakov, A. V.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Sugimoto, N.

Taira, T.

Tan, Y.

Thomson, R. R.

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Voicu, F.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zamfirescu, M.

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Ródenas, G. A. Torchia, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Refractive index change mechanisms in femtosecond laser written ceramic Nd:YAG waveguides: micro-spectroscopy experiments and beam propagation calculations,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 85–96 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 131–135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Pavel, G. Salamu, F. Voicu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, T. Dascalu, “Efficient laser emission in diode-pumped Nd:YAG buried waveguides realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(9), 095802 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers, Part I: Fundamentals and fabrication techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 35(6), 159–239 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Chen and J. R. V’azquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. doi: (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimental set-up used for inscribing tracks in the Nd:YAG ceramic media is presented. λ/2: half-wave plate, P: polarizer, F: filter; HRM: high-reflectivity mirror; L: lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope photos of the structures inscribed in the Nd:YAG ceramics: a) two lines placed at distance w = 50 μm; six tracks for a two-wall waveguide with increased dimension on direction Oz and distance: b) w = 50 μm (WG-1) and c) 100 μm (WG-2); cladding structures with circular shape of diameter: d) ϕ = 50 μm (DWG-1) and e) 100 μm (DWG-2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Laser pulse energy at 1.06 μm obtained from the 0.7-at.% Nd:YAG ceramic, OCM with transmission T = 0.05. Near-field images of the beams emitted from b) bulk and waveguides c) DWG-2 and d) WG-2 are shown at the indicated points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cw output power at 1.06 μm obtained from the circular DWG-2 waveguides realized in the Nd:YAG ceramic media, OCM with T = 0.05. Inset shows the near-field laser beam distribution at the maximum output power of 0.49 W.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser pulse energy at 1.3 μm obtained from the waveguides DW-1 / 0.7-at.% Nd:YAG ceramic and DW-2 / 1.1-at.% Nd:YAG ceramic, OCM with transmission T = 0.03.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The main results obtained in this work for laser emission at 1.06 μm, OCM with T = 0.05 *)

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