Abstract

We report thin film single crystal silicon photodetectors (PDs), composed of 13- 25 μm thick silicon, heterogeneously bonded to transparent Pyrex® and flexible Kapton® substrates. The measured responsivity and dark current density of the PDs on pyrex is 0.19 A/W – 0.34 A/W (λ = 470 nm – 600 nm) and 0.63 nA/cm2, respectively, at ~0V bias. The measured responsivity and dark current density of the flexible PDs is 0.16 A/W – 0.26 A/W (λ = 470 nm – 600 nm) and 0.42 nA/cm2, respectively, at a ~0V bias. The resulting responsivity-to-dark current density ratios for the reported rigid and flexible PDs are 0.3-0.54 cm2/nW and 0.38-0.62 cm2/nW, respectively. These are the highest reported responsivity-to-dark current density ratios for heterogeneously bonded thin film single crystal Si PDs, to the best of our knowledge. These PDs are customized for applications in biomedical imaging and integrated biochemical sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, R. T. Chen, “Large area silicon nanomembrane photonic devices on unconventional substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1601–1604 (2013).
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S. Saha, M. M. Hilali, E. U. Onyegam, D. Sarkar, D. Jawarani, R. A. Rao, L. Mathew, R. S. Smith, D. Xu, U. K. Das, B. Sopori, S. K. Banerjee, “Single heterojunction solar cells on exfoliated flexible ∼25 μm thick mono-crystalline silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
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S. Y. Lo, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wang, S. Y. Lien, R. H. Horng, “Fabrication of flexible amorphous-Si thin-film solar cells on a parylene template using a direct separation process,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 58(5), 1433–1439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).

S. Joo, D. F. Baldwin, “Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. A. Dhar, Brooke, T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Yuan, J. Shin, Q. Guoxuan, L. Sun, P. Bhattacharya, M. G. Lagally, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, “Flexible photodetectors on plastic substrates by use of printing transferred single-crystal germanium membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C. J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Luan, R. D. Evans, N. M. Jokerst, R. B. Fair, “Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(5), 628–635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Y. Li, X. Mi, M. Sasaki, K. Hane, “Precision optical displacement sensor based on ultra-thin film photodiode type optical interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Zimmermann, B. Muller, “Ultralow-capacitance lateral p-i-n photodiode in a thin c-Si film,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(4), 2032–2036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Zimmermann, B. Muller, A. Hammer, K. Herzog, P. Seegebrecht, “Large-area lateral p-i-n photodiode on SOI,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(2), 334–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. A. Kwa, P. M. Sarro, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Backside-illuminated silicon photodiode array for an integrated spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(5), 761–765 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. Muller, “Thin silicon film p-i-n photodiodes with internal reflection,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 13(1), 173–179 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adesida, I.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B. Y.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baca, A. J.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, D. F.

S. Joo, D. F. Baldwin, “Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

S. Saha, M. M. Hilali, E. U. Onyegam, D. Sarkar, D. Jawarani, R. A. Rao, L. Mathew, R. S. Smith, D. Xu, U. K. Das, B. Sopori, S. K. Banerjee, “Single heterojunction solar cells on exfoliated flexible ∼25 μm thick mono-crystalline silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

H. C. Yuan, J. Shin, Q. Guoxuan, L. Sun, P. Bhattacharya, M. G. Lagally, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, “Flexible photodetectors on plastic substrates by use of printing transferred single-crystal germanium membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birkelund, K.

D S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).

Blanco, J. A.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooke,

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. A. Dhar, Brooke, T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooke, M. A.

S. Dhar, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, M. A. Brooke, B. S. Nichols, B. Yu, N. Ramanujam, N. M. Jokerst, “A diffuse reflectance spectral imaging system for tumor margin assessment using custom annular photodiode arrays,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3211–3222 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, B.

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Budianu, E.

M. Purica, E. Budianu, M. Elena, “Blue/ultraviolet sensitive detector on <100> silicon membrane,” Proceedings of International Semiconductor Conference (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bultman, J. H.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Celler, G. K.

H. C. Yuan, J. Shin, Q. Guoxuan, L. Sun, P. Bhattacharya, M. G. Lagally, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, “Flexible photodetectors on plastic substrates by use of printing transferred single-crystal germanium membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

S. Y. Lo, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wang, S. Y. Lien, R. H. Horng, “Fabrication of flexible amorphous-Si thin-film solar cells on a parylene template using a direct separation process,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 58(5), 1433–1439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Choi, C.

Choi, J.

Choi, W. M.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C. J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, R.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, H. J.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, T.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contreras, D.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cross, J.

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, A.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Das, U. K.

S. Saha, M. M. Hilali, E. U. Onyegam, D. Sarkar, D. Jawarani, R. A. Rao, L. Mathew, R. S. Smith, D. Xu, U. K. Das, B. Sopori, S. K. Banerjee, “Single heterojunction solar cells on exfoliated flexible ∼25 μm thick mono-crystalline silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

DeWeerth, S. P.

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, M. A.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. A. Dhar, Brooke, T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhar, S.

Duoss, E. B.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duun, D S.

D S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).

Elena, M.

M. Purica, E. Budianu, M. Elena, “Blue/ultraviolet sensitive detector on <100> silicon membrane,” Proceedings of International Semiconductor Conference (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elvikis, P.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R.

L. Luan, M. W. Royal, R. Evans, R. B. Fair, N. M. Jokerst, “Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(6), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. D.

L. Luan, R. D. Evans, N. M. Jokerst, R. B. Fair, “Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(5), 628–635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fair, R. B.

L. Luan, M. W. Royal, R. Evans, R. B. Fair, N. M. Jokerst, “Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(6), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Luan, R. D. Evans, N. M. Jokerst, R. B. Fair, “Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(5), 628–635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, P. M.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fike, S.

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fike, S. M.

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frechette, E. S.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, J. B.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C. J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guoxuan, Q.

H. C. Yuan, J. Shin, Q. Guoxuan, L. Sun, P. Bhattacharya, M. G. Lagally, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, “Flexible photodetectors on plastic substrates by use of printing transferred single-crystal germanium membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haahr, R. G.

D S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).

Haas, D.

Hammer, A.

H. Zimmermann, B. Muller, A. Hammer, K. Herzog, P. Seegebrecht, “Large-area lateral p-i-n photodiode on SOI,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(2), 334–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Y. Li, X. Mi, M. Sasaki, K. Hane, “Precision optical displacement sensor based on ultra-thin film photodiode type optical interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

D S. Duun, R. G. Haahr, O. Hansen, K. Birkelund, E. V. Thomsen, “High quantum efficiency annular backside silicon photodiodes for reflectance pulse oximetry in wearable wireless body sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20(7), 075020 (2010).

Herzog, K.

H. Zimmermann, B. Muller, A. Hammer, K. Herzog, P. Seegebrecht, “Large-area lateral p-i-n photodiode on SOI,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(2), 334–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hilali, M. M.

S. Saha, M. M. Hilali, E. U. Onyegam, D. Sarkar, D. Jawarani, R. A. Rao, L. Mathew, R. S. Smith, D. Xu, U. K. Das, B. Sopori, S. K. Banerjee, “Single heterojunction solar cells on exfoliated flexible ∼25 μm thick mono-crystalline silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

S. Y. Lo, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wang, S. Y. Lien, R. H. Horng, “Fabrication of flexible amorphous-Si thin-film solar cells on a parylene template using a direct separation process,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 58(5), 1433–1439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, R. T. Chen, “Large area silicon nanomembrane photonic devices on unconventional substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1601–1604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, C. Y. Lin, D. Kwong, R. T. Chen, “Stamp printing of silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic devices onto flexible substrates with a suspended configuration,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1020–1022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C. J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. C.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, A.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jawarani, D.

S. Saha, M. M. Hilali, E. U. Onyegam, D. Sarkar, D. Jawarani, R. A. Rao, L. Mathew, R. S. Smith, D. Xu, U. K. Das, B. Sopori, S. K. Banerjee, “Single heterojunction solar cells on exfoliated flexible ∼25 μm thick mono-crystalline silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 163904 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

L. Luan, M. W. Royal, R. Evans, R. B. Fair, N. M. Jokerst, “Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(6), 1794–1800 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dhar, J. Y. Lo, G. M. Palmer, M. A. Brooke, B. S. Nichols, B. Yu, N. Ramanujam, N. M. Jokerst, “A diffuse reflectance spectral imaging system for tumor margin assessment using custom annular photodiode arrays,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3211–3222 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. A. Dhar, Brooke, T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Luan, R. D. Evans, N. M. Jokerst, R. B. Fair, “Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(5), 628–635 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Fike, B. Buchanan, N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, T. G. Morris, S. P. DeWeerth, “8 x 8 array of thin-film photodetectors vertically electrically interconnected to silicon circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(10), 1168–1170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Dhar, N. M. Jokerst, “High responsivity, low dark current, large area, heterogenously bonded annular thin-film silicon photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Conference (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joo, S.

S. Joo, D. F. Baldwin, “Adhesion mechanisms of nanoparticle silver to substrate materials: identification,” Nanotechnology 21(5), 055204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, M. J.

M. J. Kerr, J. Schmidt, A. Cuevas, J. H. Bultman, “Surface recombination velocity of phosphorus-diffused silicon solar cell emitters passivated with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride and thermal silicon oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(7), 3821–3826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keum, H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. H.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. I.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Viventi, J. J. Amsden, J. Xiao, L. Vigeland, Y. S. Kim, J. A. Blanco, B. Panilaitis, E. S. Frechette, D. Contreras, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, M. R. Zakin, B. Litt, J. A. Rogers, “Dissolvable films of silk fibroin for ultrathin conformal bio-integrated electronics,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, H. C.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C. J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwa, T. A.

T. A. Kwa, P. M. Sarro, R. F. Wolffenbuttel, “Backside-illuminated silicon photodiode array for an integrated spectrometer,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(5), 761–765 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, Y. Zhang, R. T. Chen, “Large area silicon nanomembrane photonic devices on unconventional substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1601–1604 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, C. Y. Lin, D. Kwong, R. T. Chen, “Stamp printing of silicon-nanomembrane-based photonic devices onto flexible substrates with a suspended configuration,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1020–1022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagally, M. G.

H. C. Yuan, J. Shin, Q. Guoxuan, L. Sun, P. Bhattacharya, M. G. Lagally, G. K. Celler, Z. Ma, “Flexible photodetectors on plastic substrates by use of printing transferred single-crystal germanium membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 013102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, O. Vendier, S. Wilkinson, S. Fike, M. Lee, E. Twyford, J. Cross, B. Buchanan, S. Wills, “Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part B 19(1), 97–106 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lei, L.

Lewis, J. A.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Yoon, A. J. Baca, S. I. Park, P. Elvikis, J. B. Geddes, L. Li, R. H. Kim, J. Xiao, S. Wang, T. H. Kim, M. J. Motala, B. Y. Ahn, E. B. Duoss, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo, P. M. Ferreira, Y. Huang, A. Rockett, J. A. Rogers, “Ultrathin silicon solar microcells for semitransparent, mechanically flexible and microconcentrator module designs,” Nat. Mater. 7(11), 907–915 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

D. H. Kim, N. Lu, R. Ma, Y. S. Kim, R. H. Kim, S. Wang, J. Wu, S. M. Won, H. Tao, A. Islam, K. J. Yu, T. I. Kim, R. Chowdhury, M. Ying, L. Xu, M. Li, H. J. Chung, H. Keum, M. McCormick, P. Liu, Y. W. Zhang, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, T. Coleman, J. A. Rogers, “Epidermal electronics,” Science 333(6044), 838–843 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Mi, M. Sasaki, K. Hane, “Precision optical displacement sensor based on ultra-thin film photodiode type optical interferometers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(4), 479–483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lien, S. Y.

S. Y. Lo, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Chang, C. C. Wang, S. Y. Lien, R. H. Horng, “Fabrication of flexible amorphous-Si thin-film solar cells on a parylene template using a direct separation process,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 58(5), 1433–1439 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

Lin Luan, S.

N. M. Jokerst, S. Lin Luan, M. Palit, S. Royal, M. A. Dhar, Brooke, T. Tyler, “Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 3(4), 202–211 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the previously developed diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe for breast cancer margin assessment [7] (b) Cross-section view of the thin-film annular PDs reported herein.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photomicrograph of a 2x1 array of rigid annular thin-film Si PDs bonded to a Au coated Pyrex® substrate; (b) Photomicrograph of a 2x1 array of flexible annular thin-film PDs bonded to a Au coated Kapton® substrate; (c) Demonstration of inward bending of flexible PDs; (d) demonstration of outward bending of flexible PDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured and simulated spectral response of a 2x1 array of rigid thin-film Si PDs with junction anneal temperature = 1000°C; (b) Measured spectral response of flexible and rigid thin-film Si PDs with junction anneal temperature = 950°C. +/−σ error for the photoresponse measurements is more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than the signal measured.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Outward bending spectral response characterization; (b) Outward bending dark current characterization; (c) Inward bending spectral response characterization; (d) Inward bending dark current characterization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of annular thin-film Si PDs in this report to previously reported thin-film single crystal Si PDs.

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