Abstract

Consider a time-harmonic electromagnetic plane wave incident on a perfectly conducting biperiodic surface (crossed grating). The diffraction is modeled as a boundary value problem for the three-dimensional Maxwell equation. The surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a planar surface. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to solve the inverse diffraction grating problem in the near-field regime, which is to reconstruct the surface with resolution beyond Rayleigh’s criterion. The method requires only a single incident field with one polarization, one frequency, and one incident direction, and is realized by using the fast Fourier transform. Numerical results show that the method is simple, efficient, and stable to reconstruct biperiodic surfaces with subwavelength resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (8)

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “On uniqueness in electromagnetic scattering from biperiodic structures,” ESAIM Math. Modell. Numer. Anal. 47, 1167–1184 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “Factorization method for electromagnetic inverse scattering from biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 6, 1111–1139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 73, 2162–2187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, J. Lin, “Near-field imaging of the surface displacement on an infinite ground plane,” Inverse Probl. Imag. 7, 377–396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Resolution and stability analysis in full-aperture, linearized conductivity and wave imaging,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 141, 3431–3446 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Partial data resolving power of conductivity imaging from boundary measurements,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 45, 1704–1722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, J. Lv, “Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from phasless data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 293–299 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Cheng, P. Li, Y. Wang, “Near-field imaging of perfectly conducting grating surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2473–2481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “A computational inverse diffraction grating problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 394–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, D. P. Nicholls, J. Shen, “An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic struture,” J. Comput. Phys. 231, 3007–3022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A field expansions method for scattering by periodic multilayered media,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1783–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A boundary perturbation method for recovering interface shapes in layered media,” Inverse Probl. 27, 095009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hu, J. Yang, B. Zhang, “An inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for a bi-periodic inhomogeneous layer on a perfectly conducting plate,” Appl. Anal. 90, 317–333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hu, B. Zhang, “The linear sampling method for inverse electromagnetic scattering by a partially coated bi-periodic structures,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 34, 509–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Zhang, “Inverse electromagnetic scattering problems by a doubly periodic structure,” Math. Appl. Anal. 18, 111–126 (2011).

G. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Zou, “Unique determination of periodic polyhedral structures by scattered electromagnetic fields,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 4527–4551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “An adaptive edge element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for wave scattering by biperiodic structures,” Math. Comput. 79, 1–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, Y. Y. Lu, “Analyzing diffraction gratings by a boundary integral equation Neumann-to-Dirichlet map method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2444–2451 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Akduman, R. Kress, A. Yapar, “Iterative reconstruction of dielectric rough surface profiles at fixed frequency,” Inverse Probl. 22, 939–954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (5)

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Near-field tomography,” MSRI Ser. Math. Appl. 47, 133–168 (2003).

G. Bruckner, J. Elschner, “A two-step algorithm for the reconstruction of perfectly reflecting periodic profiles,” Inverse Probl. 19, 315–329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Hsiao, A. Rathsfeld, “Grating profile reconstruction based on finite elements and optimization techniques,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64, 525–545 (2003).

T. Arens, A. Kirsch, “The factorization method in inverse scattering from periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 19, 1195–1211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, H. Wu, “An adaptive finite element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for the wave scattering by periodic structures,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41, 799–826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Bruckner, J. Cheng, M. Yamamoto, “An inverse problem in diffractive optics: conditional stability,” Inverse Probl. 18, 415–433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, “Iterative regularization schemes in inverse scattering by periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 18, 701–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for near-field microscopy,” App. Phys. Lett. 77, 2798–2800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Kress, T. Tran, “Inverse scattering for a locally perturbed half-plane,” Inverse Probl. 16, 1541–1559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. Ito, F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile reconstruction: I. Perfectly conducting gratings,” Inverse Probl. 15, 1067–1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Dobson, “Optimal shape design of blazed diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Math. Optim. 40, 61–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Diffraction in periodic structures and optimal design of binary gratings: I. Direct problems and gradient formulas,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 21, 1297–1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Numerical solution of optimal design problems for binary gratings,” J. Comput. Phys. 146, 603–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, Z. Zhou, “An inverse problem for scattering by a doubly periodic structure,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 350, 4089–4103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. Bao, “Variational approximation of Maxwell’s equations in biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 57, 364–381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, A. Kirsch, “Schiffer’s theorem in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 13, 351–361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. Bao, A. Friedman, “Inverse problems for scattering by periodic structure,” Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 132, 49–72 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, “Uniqueness theorems for an inverse problem in a doubly periodic structure,” Inverse Probl. 11, 823–833 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, D. Dobson, J. A. Cox, “Mathematical studies in rigorous grating theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1029–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. Dobson, “A variational method for electromagnetic diffraction in biperiodic structures,” Math. Model. Numer. Anal. 28, 419–439 (1994).

A. Kirsch, “Uniqueness theorems in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 10, 145–152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, “A unique theorem for an inverse problem in periodic diffractive optics,” Inverse Probl. 10, 335–340 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1991 (2)

J. A. DeSanto, R. J. Wombell, “The reconstruction of shallow rough-surface profiles from scattered field data,” Inverse Probl. 7, L7–L12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Nédélec, F. Starling, “Integral equation methods in a quasi-periodic diffraction problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 22, 1679–1701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akduman, I.

I. Akduman, R. Kress, A. Yapar, “Iterative reconstruction of dielectric rough surface profiles at fixed frequency,” Inverse Probl. 22, 939–954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amestoy, P. R.

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ammari, H.

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Resolution and stability analysis in full-aperture, linearized conductivity and wave imaging,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 141, 3431–3446 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Partial data resolving power of conductivity imaging from boundary measurements,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 45, 1704–1722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, “Uniqueness theorems for an inverse problem in a doubly periodic structure,” Inverse Probl. 11, 823–833 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arens, T.

T. Arens, A. Kirsch, “The factorization method in inverse scattering from periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 19, 1195–1211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, G.

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 73, 2162–2187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, J. Lin, “Near-field imaging of the surface displacement on an infinite ground plane,” Inverse Probl. Imag. 7, 377–396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, J. Lv, “Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from phasless data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 293–299 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “A computational inverse diffraction grating problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 394–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Zou, “Unique determination of periodic polyhedral structures by scattered electromagnetic fields,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 4527–4551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “An adaptive edge element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for wave scattering by biperiodic structures,” Math. Comput. 79, 1–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, Z. Zhou, “An inverse problem for scattering by a doubly periodic structure,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 350, 4089–4103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, “Variational approximation of Maxwell’s equations in biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 57, 364–381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, A. Friedman, “Inverse problems for scattering by periodic structure,” Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 132, 49–72 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, D. Dobson, J. A. Cox, “Mathematical studies in rigorous grating theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1029–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, “A unique theorem for an inverse problem in periodic diffractive optics,” Inverse Probl. 10, 335–340 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces in dielectric media,” SIAJ J. Imaging Sci., to appear.

G. Bao, L. Cowsar, W. Masters, Mathematical Modeling in Optical Science, Vol. 22 of Frontiers in Applied Mathematics (SIAM, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, G.

G. Bruckner, J. Elschner, “A two-step algorithm for the reconstruction of perfectly reflecting periodic profiles,” Inverse Probl. 19, 315–329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bruckner, J. Cheng, M. Yamamoto, “An inverse problem in diffractive optics: conditional stability,” Inverse Probl. 18, 415–433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, O.

Carney, S.

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Near-field tomography,” MSRI Ser. Math. Appl. 47, 133–168 (2003).

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for near-field microscopy,” App. Phys. Lett. 77, 2798–2800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, H. Wu, “An adaptive finite element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for the wave scattering by periodic structures,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41, 799–826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

G. Bruckner, J. Cheng, M. Yamamoto, “An inverse problem in diffractive optics: conditional stability,” Inverse Probl. 18, 415–433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

Coifman, R.

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cowsar, L.

G. Bao, L. Cowsar, W. Masters, Mathematical Modeling in Optical Science, Vol. 22 of Frontiers in Applied Mathematics (SIAM, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. A.

DeSanto, J. A.

J. A. DeSanto, R. J. Wombell, “The reconstruction of shallow rough-surface profiles from scattered field data,” Inverse Probl. 7, L7–L12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, D.

D. Dobson, “Optimal shape design of blazed diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Math. Optim. 40, 61–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, D. Dobson, J. A. Cox, “Mathematical studies in rigorous grating theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1029–1042 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Dobson, “A variational method for electromagnetic diffraction in biperiodic structures,” Math. Model. Numer. Anal. 28, 419–439 (1994).

D. Dobson, “Optimal design of periodic antireflective structures for the Helmholtz equation,” Eur. J. Appl. Math. 4, 321–340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Duff, I. S.

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elschner, J.

G. Bruckner, J. Elschner, “A two-step algorithm for the reconstruction of perfectly reflecting periodic profiles,” Inverse Probl. 19, 315–329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Hsiao, A. Rathsfeld, “Grating profile reconstruction based on finite elements and optimization techniques,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64, 525–545 (2003).

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Diffraction in periodic structures and optimal design of binary gratings: I. Direct problems and gradient formulas,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 21, 1297–1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Numerical solution of optimal design problems for binary gratings,” J. Comput. Phys. 146, 603–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, A.

G. Bao, A. Friedman, “Inverse problems for scattering by periodic structure,” Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 132, 49–72 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, J.

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Resolution and stability analysis in full-aperture, linearized conductivity and wave imaging,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 141, 3431–3446 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Partial data resolving power of conductivity imaging from boundary measurements,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 45, 1704–1722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M.

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guermouche, A.

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, D. P. Nicholls, J. Shen, “An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic struture,” J. Comput. Phys. 231, 3007–3022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hettlich, F.

F. Hettlich, “Iterative regularization schemes in inverse scattering by periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 18, 701–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, A. Kirsch, “Schiffer’s theorem in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 13, 351–361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hrycak, T.

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiao, G.

J. Elschner, G. Hsiao, A. Rathsfeld, “Grating profile reconstruction based on finite elements and optimization techniques,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64, 525–545 (2003).

Hu, G.

G. Hu, J. Yang, B. Zhang, “An inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for a bi-periodic inhomogeneous layer on a perfectly conducting plate,” Appl. Anal. 90, 317–333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Hu, B. Zhang, “The linear sampling method for inverse electromagnetic scattering by a partially coated bi-periodic structures,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 34, 509–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Israeli, M.

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

K. Ito, F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile reconstruction: I. Perfectly conducting gratings,” Inverse Probl. 15, 1067–1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, A.

T. Arens, A. Kirsch, “The factorization method in inverse scattering from periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 19, 1195–1211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, A. Kirsch, “Schiffer’s theorem in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 13, 351–361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirsch, “Uniqueness theorems in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 10, 145–152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koster, J.

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kress, R.

I. Akduman, R. Kress, A. Yapar, “Iterative reconstruction of dielectric rough surface profiles at fixed frequency,” Inverse Probl. 22, 939–954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Kress, T. Tran, “Inverse scattering for a locally perturbed half-plane,” Inverse Probl. 16, 1541–1559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L’Excellent, J.-Y.

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lechleiter, A.

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “On uniqueness in electromagnetic scattering from biperiodic structures,” ESAIM Math. Modell. Numer. Anal. 47, 1167–1184 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “Factorization method for electromagnetic inverse scattering from biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 6, 1111–1139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 73, 2162–2187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Cheng, P. Li, Y. Wang, “Near-field imaging of perfectly conducting grating surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 2473–2481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, J. Lv, “Numerical solution of an inverse diffraction grating problem from phasless data,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30, 293–299 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “A computational inverse diffraction grating problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 394–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “An adaptive edge element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for wave scattering by biperiodic structures,” Math. Comput. 79, 1–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces in dielectric media,” SIAJ J. Imaging Sci., to appear.

Lin, J.

G. Bao, J. Lin, “Near-field imaging of the surface displacement on an infinite ground plane,” Inverse Probl. Imag. 7, 377–396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Y.

Lv, J.

Malcolm, A.

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A field expansions method for scattering by periodic multilayered media,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1783–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A boundary perturbation method for recovering interface shapes in layered media,” Inverse Probl. 27, 095009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “Operator expansions and constrained quadratic optimization for interface reconstruction: Impenetrable periodic acoustic media,” Wave Motion, to appear.

Masters, W.

G. Bao, L. Cowsar, W. Masters, Mathematical Modeling in Optical Science, Vol. 22 of Frontiers in Applied Mathematics (SIAM, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Nédélec, J. C.

J. C. Nédélec, F. Starling, “Integral equation methods in a quasi-periodic diffraction problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 22, 1679–1701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. L.

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “Factorization method for electromagnetic inverse scattering from biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 6, 1111–1139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “On uniqueness in electromagnetic scattering from biperiodic structures,” ESAIM Math. Modell. Numer. Anal. 47, 1167–1184 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Nguyen, Spectral Methods for Direct and Inverse Scattering from Periodic Structures (PhD thesis, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2012).

Nicholls, D. P.

Y. He, D. P. Nicholls, J. Shen, “An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic struture,” J. Comput. Phys. 231, 3007–3022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A boundary perturbation method for recovering interface shapes in layered media,” Inverse Probl. 27, 095009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A field expansions method for scattering by periodic multilayered media,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1783–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Nicholls, F. Reitich, “Shape deformations in rough surface scattering: cancellations, conditioning, and convergence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 590–605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Nicholls, F. Reitich, “Shape deformations in rough surface scattering: improved algorithms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 606–621 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “Operator expansions and constrained quadratic optimization for interface reconstruction: Impenetrable periodic acoustic media,” Wave Motion, to appear.

Pralet, S.

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rathsfeld, A.

J. Elschner, G. Hsiao, A. Rathsfeld, “Grating profile reconstruction based on finite elements and optimization techniques,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64, 525–545 (2003).

Reitich, F.

Rokhlin, V.

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandfort, K.

K. Sandfort, The factorization method for inverse scattering from periodic inhomogeneous media (PhD thesis, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 2010).

Schmidt, G.

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Numerical solution of optimal design problems for binary gratings,” J. Comput. Phys. 146, 603–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Diffraction in periodic structures and optimal design of binary gratings: I. Direct problems and gradient formulas,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 21, 1297–1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, J.

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Near-field tomography,” MSRI Ser. Math. Appl. 47, 133–168 (2003).

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for near-field microscopy,” App. Phys. Lett. 77, 2798–2800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

Y. He, D. P. Nicholls, J. Shen, “An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic struture,” J. Comput. Phys. 231, 3007–3022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Solna, K.

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Resolution and stability analysis in full-aperture, linearized conductivity and wave imaging,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 141, 3431–3446 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Partial data resolving power of conductivity imaging from boundary measurements,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 45, 1704–1722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Starling, F.

J. C. Nédélec, F. Starling, “Integral equation methods in a quasi-periodic diffraction problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 22, 1679–1701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tran, T.

R. Kress, T. Tran, “Inverse scattering for a locally perturbed half-plane,” Inverse Probl. 16, 1541–1559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wombell, R. J.

J. A. DeSanto, R. J. Wombell, “The reconstruction of shallow rough-surface profiles from scattered field data,” Inverse Probl. 7, L7–L12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “A computational inverse diffraction grating problem,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 394–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “An adaptive edge element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for wave scattering by biperiodic structures,” Math. Comput. 79, 1–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, H. Wu, “An adaptive finite element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for the wave scattering by periodic structures,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41, 799–826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Yamamoto, M.

G. Bruckner, J. Cheng, M. Yamamoto, “An inverse problem in diffractive optics: conditional stability,” Inverse Probl. 18, 415–433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, B. Zhang, “Inverse electromagnetic scattering problems by a doubly periodic structure,” Math. Appl. Anal. 18, 111–126 (2011).

G. Hu, J. Yang, B. Zhang, “An inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for a bi-periodic inhomogeneous layer on a perfectly conducting plate,” Appl. Anal. 90, 317–333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yapar, A.

I. Akduman, R. Kress, A. Yapar, “Iterative reconstruction of dielectric rough surface profiles at fixed frequency,” Inverse Probl. 22, 939–954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

G. Hu, J. Yang, B. Zhang, “An inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for a bi-periodic inhomogeneous layer on a perfectly conducting plate,” Appl. Anal. 90, 317–333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, B. Zhang, “Inverse electromagnetic scattering problems by a doubly periodic structure,” Math. Appl. Anal. 18, 111–126 (2011).

G. Hu, B. Zhang, “The linear sampling method for inverse electromagnetic scattering by a partially coated bi-periodic structures,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 34, 509–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

G. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Zou, “Unique determination of periodic polyhedral structures by scattered electromagnetic fields,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 4527–4551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

G. Bao, Z. Zhou, “An inverse problem for scattering by a doubly periodic structure,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 350, 4089–4103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

G. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Zou, “Unique determination of periodic polyhedral structures by scattered electromagnetic fields,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 4527–4551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Inverse scattering for near-field microscopy,” App. Phys. Lett. 77, 2798–2800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Anal. (1)

G. Hu, J. Yang, B. Zhang, “An inverse electromagnetic scattering problem for a bi-periodic inhomogeneous layer on a perfectly conducting plate,” Appl. Anal. 90, 317–333 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. (1)

G. Bao, A. Friedman, “Inverse problems for scattering by periodic structure,” Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 132, 49–72 (1995).
[CrossRef]

ESAIM Math. Modell. Numer. Anal. (1)

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “On uniqueness in electromagnetic scattering from biperiodic structures,” ESAIM Math. Modell. Numer. Anal. 47, 1167–1184 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Appl. Math. (1)

D. Dobson, “Optimal design of periodic antireflective structures for the Helmholtz equation,” Eur. J. Appl. Math. 4, 321–340 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (13)

I. Akduman, R. Kress, A. Yapar, “Iterative reconstruction of dielectric rough surface profiles at fixed frequency,” Inverse Probl. 22, 939–954 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bruckner, J. Elschner, “A two-step algorithm for the reconstruction of perfectly reflecting periodic profiles,” Inverse Probl. 19, 315–329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, “Iterative regularization schemes in inverse scattering by periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 18, 701–714 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, F. Reitich, “A high-order perturbation approach to profile reconstruction: I. Perfectly conducting gratings,” Inverse Probl. 15, 1067–1085 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, “Uniqueness theorems for an inverse problem in a doubly periodic structure,” Inverse Probl. 11, 823–833 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. DeSanto, R. J. Wombell, “The reconstruction of shallow rough-surface profiles from scattered field data,” Inverse Probl. 7, L7–L12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Kress, T. Tran, “Inverse scattering for a locally perturbed half-plane,” Inverse Probl. 16, 1541–1559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bruckner, J. Cheng, M. Yamamoto, “An inverse problem in diffractive optics: conditional stability,” Inverse Probl. 18, 415–433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Hettlich, A. Kirsch, “Schiffer’s theorem in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 13, 351–361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirsch, “Uniqueness theorems in inverse scattering theory for periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 10, 145–152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Arens, A. Kirsch, “The factorization method in inverse scattering from periodic structures,” Inverse Probl. 19, 1195–1211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, “A unique theorem for an inverse problem in periodic diffractive optics,” Inverse Probl. 10, 335–340 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A boundary perturbation method for recovering interface shapes in layered media,” Inverse Probl. 27, 095009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. Imag. (1)

G. Bao, J. Lin, “Near-field imaging of the surface displacement on an infinite ground plane,” Inverse Probl. Imag. 7, 377–396 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “A field expansions method for scattering by periodic multilayered media,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1783–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Math. Optim. (1)

D. Dobson, “Optimal shape design of blazed diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Math. Optim. 40, 61–78 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (2)

Y. He, D. P. Nicholls, J. Shen, “An efficient and stable spectral method for electromagnetic scattering from a layered periodic struture,” J. Comput. Phys. 231, 3007–3022 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Numerical solution of optimal design problems for binary gratings,” J. Comput. Phys. 146, 603–626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (9)

Math. Appl. Anal. (1)

J. Yang, B. Zhang, “Inverse electromagnetic scattering problems by a doubly periodic structure,” Math. Appl. Anal. 18, 111–126 (2011).

Math. Comput. (1)

G. Bao, P. Li, H. Wu, “An adaptive edge element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for wave scattering by biperiodic structures,” Math. Comput. 79, 1–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Math. Methods Appl. Sci. (2)

J. Elschner, G. Schmidt, “Diffraction in periodic structures and optimal design of binary gratings: I. Direct problems and gradient formulas,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 21, 1297–1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Hu, B. Zhang, “The linear sampling method for inverse electromagnetic scattering by a partially coated bi-periodic structures,” Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 34, 509–519 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Math. Model. Numer. Anal. (1)

D. Dobson, “A variational method for electromagnetic diffraction in biperiodic structures,” Math. Model. Numer. Anal. 28, 419–439 (1994).

MSRI Ser. Math. Appl. (1)

S. Carney, J. Schotland, “Near-field tomography,” MSRI Ser. Math. Appl. 47, 133–168 (2003).

Parallel Comput. (1)

P. R. Amestoy, A. Guermouche, J.-Y. L’Excellent, S. Pralet, “Hybrid scheduling for the parallel solution of linear systems,” Parallel Comput. 32, 136–156 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Math. Soc. (1)

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Resolution and stability analysis in full-aperture, linearized conductivity and wave imaging,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 141, 3431–3446 (2013).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Appl. Math. (3)

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 73, 2162–2187 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, “Variational approximation of Maxwell’s equations in biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 57, 364–381 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Elschner, G. Hsiao, A. Rathsfeld, “Grating profile reconstruction based on finite elements and optimization techniques,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 64, 525–545 (2003).

SIAM J. Imaging Sci. (1)

A. Lechleiter, D. L. Nguyen, “Factorization method for electromagnetic inverse scattering from biperiodic structures,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 6, 1111–1139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Math. Anal. (2)

J. C. Nédélec, F. Starling, “Integral equation methods in a quasi-periodic diffraction problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 22, 1679–1701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Ammari, J. Garnier, K. Solna, “Partial data resolving power of conductivity imaging from boundary measurements,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 45, 1704–1722 (2013).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. (1)

P. R. Amestoy, I. S. Duff, J. Koster, J.-Y. L’Excellent, “A fully asynchronous multifrontal solver using distributed dynamic scheduling,” SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 23, 15–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1)

Z. Chen, H. Wu, “An adaptive finite element method with perfectly matched absorbing layers for the wave scattering by periodic structures,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41, 799–826 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Math. Soc. (2)

G. Bao, H. Zhang, J. Zou, “Unique determination of periodic polyhedral structures by scattered electromagnetic fields,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 363, 4527–4551 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bao, Z. Zhou, “An inverse problem for scattering by a doubly periodic structure,” Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 350, 4089–4103 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

R. Coifman, M. Goldberg, T. Hrycak, M. Israeli, V. Rokhlin, “An improved operator expansion algorithm for direct and inverse scattering computations,” Waves Random Media 9, 441–457 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. Malcolm, D. P. Nicholls, “Operator expansions and constrained quadratic optimization for interface reconstruction: Impenetrable periodic acoustic media,” Wave Motion, to appear.

R. Petit, ed., Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer, 1980).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Nguyen, Spectral Methods for Direct and Inverse Scattering from Periodic Structures (PhD thesis, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2012).

K. Sandfort, The factorization method for inverse scattering from periodic inhomogeneous media (PhD thesis, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 2010).

G. Bao, L. Cowsar, W. Masters, Mathematical Modeling in Optical Science, Vol. 22 of Frontiers in Applied Mathematics (SIAM, 2001).
[CrossRef]

PHG (Parallel Hierarchical Grid), http://lsec.cc.ac.cn/phg/ .

G. Bao, P. Li, “Near-field imaging of infinite rough surfaces in dielectric media,” SIAJ J. Imaging Sci., to appear.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the diffraction grating problem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The exact grating profile ψ. (a) Example 1: smooth grating profile with finite Fourier modes; (b) Example 2: non-smooth grating profile with infinite Fourier modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example 1: Reconstructed grating surfaces by using different h with ε = 0.025λ and δ = 5%. (a) h = 0.4λ; (b) h = 0.3λ; (c) h = 0.2λ; (d) h = 0.1λ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example 2: Reconstructed grating surfaces by using different h with ε = 0.0125λ and δ = 5%. (a) h = 0.2λ; (b) h = 0.1λ; (c) h = 0.05λ; (d) h = 0.025λ.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Example 1: Relative error of the reconstructions by using different ε with h = 0.4λ and δ = 0.0.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Example 1: Relative error of the reconstructions by using different h with ε = 0.025λ and δ = 5%.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Example 2: Relative error of the reconstructions by using different ε with h = 0.2λ and δ = 0.0.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Example 2: Relative error of the reconstructions by using different h with ε = 0.0125λ and δ = 5%.

Equations (87)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ ( ρ ) = ε ψ ( ρ ) ,
E inc = t exp ( i κ ( α ρ β z ) ) , H inc = s exp ( i κ ( α ρ β z ) ) .
s 1 = α 2 t 3 + β t 2 , s 2 = ( α 1 t 3 + β t 1 ) , s 3 = α 1 t 2 α 2 t 1 .
E j inc = t j exp ( i κ z ) , H j inc = s j exp ( i κ z ) .
× E inc i κ H inc = 0 , × H inc + i κ E inc = 0 , in 3 .
× E i κ H = 0 , × H + i κ E = 0 , in Ω S ,
E = 0 and H = 0 in Ω S .
E × ν S = 0 on S ,
ν 1 = ϕ x ( 1 + ϕ x 2 + ϕ y 2 ) 1 / 2 , ν 2 = ϕ y ( 1 + ϕ x 2 + ϕ y 2 ) 1 / 2 , ν 3 = 1 ( 1 + ϕ x 2 + ϕ y 2 ) 1 / 2 .
u ( ρ ) = n 2 u n exp ( i α n ρ ) , u n = Λ 1 1 Λ 2 1 0 Λ 1 0 Λ 2 u ( ρ ) exp ( i α n ρ ) d ρ .
u Γ = ν Γ × ( u × ν Γ ) = ( u 1 ( ρ , h ) , u 2 ( ρ , h ) , 0 ) ,
T u = ( v 1 ( ρ , h ) , v 2 ( ρ , h ) , 0 ) ,
u j ( ρ , h ) = n 2 u j n ( h ) exp ( i α n ρ ) , v j ( ρ , h ) = n 2 v j n ( h ) exp ( i α n ρ ) ,
{ v 1 n ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 2 n 2 ) u 1 n ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n u 2 n ( h ) ] , v 2 n ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 1 n 2 ) u 2 n ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n u 1 n ( h ) ) ] .
( × E ) × ν Γ = i κ T E Γ + f , on Γ ,
f = i κ ( H inc × ν Γ T E Γ inc ) = ( f 1 , f 2 , 0 ) .
f 1 = 2 i κ t 1 exp ( i κ h ) and f 2 = 2 i κ t 2 exp ( i κ h ) .
{ × ( × E ) κ 2 E = 0 in Ω , E × ν S = 0 on S , ( × E ) × ν Γ i κ T E Γ = f on Γ .
Δ E j + κ 2 E j = 0 in Ω .
x E 1 + y E 2 + z E 3 = 0 in Ω .
E 2 + ϕ y E 3 = 0 , E 1 + ϕ x E 3 = 0 , ϕ y E 1 ϕ x E 2 = 0 , on z = ϕ ( ρ ) .
z E 1 x E 3 = i κ H 1 + f 1 , z E 2 y E 3 = i κ H 2 + f 2 , on z = h ,
{ H 1 n ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 2 n 2 ) E 1 n ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 2 n ( h ) ] , H 2 n ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 1 n 2 ) E 2 n ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 1 n ( h ) ] .
x ˜ = x , y ˜ = y , z ˜ = h ( z ϕ h ϕ ) ,
D = { ( x ˜ , y ˜ , z ˜ ) 3 : 0 < z ˜ < h } = 2 × ( 0 , h ) .
c 1 2 E j x 2 + c 1 2 E j y 2 + c 2 2 E j z 2 c 3 2 E j x z c 4 2 E j y z c 5 E j z + κ 2 c 1 E j = 0 in D ,
c 1 = ( h ϕ ) 2 , c 2 = ( ϕ x 2 + ϕ y 2 ) ( h z ) 2 + h 2 , c 3 = 2 ϕ x ( h z ) ( h ϕ ) , c 4 = 2 ϕ y ( h z ) ( h ϕ ) , c 5 = ( h z ) [ ( ϕ x x + ϕ y y ) ( h ϕ ) + 2 ( ϕ x 2 + ϕ y 2 ) ] .
x E 1 + y E 2 ( h z h ϕ ) ( ϕ x z E 1 + ϕ y z E 2 ) + ( h h ϕ ) z E 3 = 0 in D .
E 2 + ϕ y E 3 = 0 , E 1 + ϕ x E 3 = 0 , ϕ y E 1 ϕ x E 2 = 0 , z = 0 .
( h h ϕ ) z E 1 x E 3 = i κ H 1 + f 1 , ( h h ϕ ) z E 2 y E 3 = i κ H 2 + f 2 .
E j ( ρ , z ; ε ) = k = 0 E j ( k ) ( ρ , z ) ε k .
Δ E j ( k ) + κ 2 E j ( k ) = F j ( k ) in D ,
F j ( k ) = 2 ψ h 2 E j ( k 1 ) x 2 + 2 ψ h 2 E j ( k 1 ) y 2 + 2 ( h z ) ψ x h 2 E j ( k 1 ) x x + 2 ( h z ) ψ y h 2 E j ( k 1 ) y z + ( h z ) ( ψ x x + ψ y y ) h E j ( k 1 ) z + 2 κ 2 ψ h E j ( k 1 ) ψ 2 h 2 2 E j ( k 2 ) x 2 ψ 2 h 2 2 E j ( k 2 ) y 2 ( h z ) 2 ( ψ x 2 + ψ y 2 ) h 2 2 E j ( k 2 ) z 2 2 ψ ψ x ( h z ) h 2 2 E j ( k 2 ) x z 2 ψ ψ y ( h z ) h 2 2 E j ( k 2 ) y z + ( h z ) [ 2 ( ψ x 2 + ψ y 2 ) ψ ( ψ x x + ψ y y ) ] h 2 E j ( k 2 ) z κ 2 ψ 2 h 2 E j ( k 2 ) .
x E 1 ( k ) + y E 2 ( k ) + z E 3 ( k ) = w ( k ) in D ,
w ( k ) = ψ h ( x E 1 ( k 1 ) + y E 2 ( k 1 ) ) + ( h z h ) ( ψ x z E 1 ( k 1 ) + ψ y z E 2 ( k 1 ) ) .
E 1 ( k ) = u 1 ( k ) , E 2 ( k ) = u 2 ( k ) ,
u 1 ( k ) ( ρ ) = ψ x E 3 ( k 1 ) , u 2 ( k ) = ψ y E 3 ( k 1 ) .
x E 1 ( k ) + y E 2 ( k ) + z E 3 ( k ) = u 3 ( k ) , z = 0 ,
u 3 ( k ) ( ρ ) = ψ h ( x E 1 ( k 1 ) + y E 2 ( k 1 ) ) + ( ψ x z E 1 ( k 1 ) + ψ y z E 2 ( k 1 ) ) .
{ z E 1 ( k ) x E 3 ( k ) = i κ H 1 ( k ) + v 1 ( k ) , z E 2 ( k ) y E 3 ( k ) = i κ H 2 ( k ) + v 2 ( k ) ,
v 1 ( 0 ) = f 1 , v 1 ( 1 ) = ψ h z E 1 ( 0 ) , v 1 ( k ) = ψ h ( x E 3 ( k 1 ) + i κ H 1 ( k 1 ) ) , v 2 ( 0 ) = f 2 , v 2 ( 1 ) = ψ h z E 2 ( 0 ) , v 2 ( k ) = ψ h ( y E 3 ( k 1 ) + i κ H 2 ( k 1 ) ) ,
{ H 1 n ( k ) ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 2 n 2 ) E 1 n ( k ) ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 2 n ( k ) ( h ) ] , H 2 n ( k ) ( h ) = 1 κ β n [ ( κ 2 α 1 n 2 ) E 2 n ( k ) ( h ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 1 n ( k ) ( h ) ] .
x E 1 ( k ) + y E 2 ( k ) + z E 3 ( k ) = v 3 ( k ) ,
v 3 ( k ) ( ρ ) = ψ h ( x E 1 ( k 1 ) + y E 2 ( k 1 ) ) .
Δ E j ( 0 ) + κ 2 E j ( 0 ) = 0 in D .
x E 1 ( 0 ) + y E 2 ( 0 ) + z E 3 ( 0 ) = 0 in D .
E 1 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 0 , E 2 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 0 .
z E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = x E 1 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) y E 2 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 0 .
{ z E 1 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) x E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) = i κ H 1 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) + f 1 ( ρ ) , z E 2 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) y E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) = i κ H 2 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) + f 2 ( ρ ) .
x E 1 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) + y E 2 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) + z E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) = 0 .
E j ( 0 ) ( ρ , z ) = n 2 E j n ( 0 ) ( z ) exp ( i α n ρ ) , f j = n 2 f j n exp ( i α n ρ ) ,
d 2 E j n ( 0 ) ( z ) d z 2 + ( κ 2 | α n | 2 ) E j n ( 0 ) ( z ) = 0 , 0 < z < h .
E 1 n ( 0 ) = 0 , E 2 n ( 0 ) = 0 , E 3 n ( 0 ) = 0 ,
{ E 1 n ( 0 ) i α 1 n E 3 n ( 0 ) = i β n [ ( κ 2 α 2 n 2 ) E 1 n ( 0 ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 2 n ( 0 ) ] + f 1 n , E 2 n ( 0 ) i α 2 n E 3 n ( 0 ) = i β n [ ( κ 2 α 1 n 2 ) E 2 n ( 0 ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 1 n ( 0 ) ] + f 2 n , E 3 n ( 0 ) + i α 1 n E 1 n ( 0 ) + i α 2 n E 2 n ( 0 ) = 0 .
E j 0 ( ρ , z ) = t j ( exp ( i κ z ) exp ( i κ z ) ) .
Δ E j ( 1 ) + κ 2 E j ( 1 ) = F j ( 1 ) in D ,
F j ( 1 ) = 2 ψ h 2 E j ( 0 ) x 2 + 2 ψ h 2 E j ( 0 ) y 2 + 2 ( h z ) ψ x h 2 E j ( 0 ) x z + 2 ( h z ) ψ y h 2 E j ( 0 ) y z + ( h z ) ( ψ x x + ψ y y ) h E j ( 0 ) z + 2 κ 2 ψ h E j ( 0 ) .
F j ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) = 2 κ 2 t j h ψ ( exp ( i κ z ) exp ( i κ z ) ) i κ t j ( h z ) h ( ψ x x + ψ y y ) ( exp ( i κ z ) + exp ( i κ z ) ) .
x E 1 ( 1 ) + y E 2 ( 1 ) + z E 3 ( 1 ) = w ( 1 ) in D ,
w ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) = ψ h ( x E 1 ( 0 ) + y E 2 ( 0 ) ) + ( h z h ) ( ψ x z E 1 ( 0 ) + ψ y z E 2 ( 0 ) ) = i κ ( h z ) h ( t 1 ψ x + t 2 ψ y ) ( exp ( i κ z ) + exp ( i κ z ) ) .
E 1 ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = u 1 ( 1 ) ( ρ ) = ψ x ( ρ ) E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 0 , E 2 ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = u 2 ( 1 ) ( ρ ) = ψ y ( ρ ) E 3 ( 0 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 0 .
z E 3 ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = w ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) x E 1 ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) y E 2 ( 1 ) ( ρ , 0 ) = 2 i κ ( t 1 ψ x + t 2 ψ y ) .
z E 1 ( 1 ) x E 3 ( 1 ) = i κ H 1 ( 1 ) + v 1 ( 1 ) , z E 2 ( 1 ) y E 3 ( 1 ) = i κ H 2 ( 1 ) + v 2 ( 1 ) ,
v j ( 1 ) ( ρ ) = ψ h z E j ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) = i κ t j h ( exp ( i κ h ) + exp ( i κ h ) ) ψ .
x E 1 ( 1 ) ( ρ , h ) + y E 2 ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) + z E 3 ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) = 0 .
ψ ( ρ ) = n 2 ψ n exp ( i α n ρ ) , E j ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) = n 2 E j n ( 1 ) ( z ) exp ( i α n ρ ) , F j ( 1 ) ( ρ , z ) = n 2 F j n ( 1 ) ( z ) exp ( i α n ρ ) ,
F j n ( 1 ) ( z ) = [ 2 κ 2 t j h ( exp ( i κ z ) exp ( i κ z ) ) + i κ t j ( h z ) h ( α 1 n 2 + α 2 n 2 ) ( exp ( i κ z ) + exp ( i κ z ) ) ] ψ n .
d 2 E j n ( 1 ) ( z ) d z 2 + ( κ 2 | α n | 2 ) E j n ( 1 ) ( z ) = F j n ( 1 ) ( z ) , 0 < z < h ,
E 1 n ( 1 ) = 0 , E 2 n ( 1 ) = 0 , E 3 n ( 1 ) ( 0 ) = 2 κ ( α 1 n + α 2 n ) ψ n ,
{ E 1 n ( 1 ) i α 1 n E 3 n ( 1 ) = i β n [ ( κ 2 α 2 n 2 ) E 1 n ( 1 ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 2 n ( 1 ) ] + v 1 n ( 1 ) , E 2 n ( 1 ) i α 2 n E 3 n ( 1 ) = i β n [ ( κ 2 α 1 n 2 ) E 2 n ( 1 ) + α 1 n α 2 n E 1 n ( 1 ) ] + v 2 n ( 1 ) , E 3 n ( 1 ) + i α 1 n E 1 n ( 1 ) + i α 2 n E 2 n ( 1 ) = 0 ,
v j n ( 1 ) = i κ t j h ( exp ( i κ h ) + exp ( i κ h ) ) ψ n .
E 1 n ( 1 ) ( h ) = 2 i κ t 1 exp ( i β n h ) ψ n and E 2 n ( 1 ) ( h ) = 2 i κ t 2 exp ( i β n h ) ψ n ,
E j δ ( ρ , h ) = E j ( ρ , h ) + 𝒪 ( δ ) ,
E j ( ρ , h ) = E j ( 0 ) ( ρ , h ) + ε E j ( 1 ) ( ρ , h ) + 𝒪 ( ε 2 ) + 𝒪 ( δ ) .
ε E j ( 1 ) ( ρ , h ) = E j δ ( ρ , h ) E j ( 0 ) ( ρ , h )
ϕ n = ( 2 i κ t j ) 1 [ E j n δ ( h ) E j n ( 0 ) ( h ) ] exp ( i β n h ) ,
E j n ( 0 ) ( h ) = t j ( exp ( i κ h ) exp ( i κ h ) ) δ 0 n .
SNR = min { ε 2 , δ 1 } .
exp ( ( κ c 2 κ 2 ) 1 / 2 h ) = SNR ,
κ c κ = [ 1 + ( log SNR κ h ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
ϕ n = ( 2 i κ t j ) 1 [ E j n δ ( h ) E j n ( 0 ) ( h ) ] exp ( i β n h ) χ n ,
χ n = { 1 for | α n | κ c , 0 for | α n | > κ c .
ϕ ( ρ ) n ϕ n exp ( i α n ρ ) = | α n | κ c ( 2 i κ t j ) 1 [ E j n δ ( h ) E j n ( 0 ) ( h ) ] exp ( i ( α n ρ β n h ) ) = | α n | κ c ( 2 i κ t j ) 1 E j n δ ( h ) exp ( i ( α n ρ β n h ) ) + ( 2 i κ ) 1 ( 1 exp ( 2 i κ h ) ) .
E 1 δ ( ρ , h ) = E 1 ( ρ , h ) ( 1 + δ rand ) ,
e = ϕ ϕ δ , ε 0 , R ϕ 0 , R ,
ψ ( x , y ) = 0.6 sin ( 2 π x ) sin ( 2 π y ) + sin ( 4 π x ) sin ( 4 π y ) .
ψ ( x , y ) = | sin ( 2 π x ) sin ( 2 π y ) | | cos ( 2 π x ) cos ( 2 π y ) | .

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