Abstract

We demonstrate a submicrometer-scale hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) waveguide with a record low propagation loss of 0.60 ± 0.02 dB/cm because of the very low infrared optical absorption of our low defect a-Si:H film, the optimized waveguide structure and the fabrication process. The waveguide has a core with a thickness of 440 nm and a width of 780 nm that underlies a 100-nm-thick ridge structure, and is fabricated by low-cost i-line stepper photolithography and with low-temperature processing at less than 350°C, making it compatible with the backend process of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-10-9809 .
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
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  12. R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Elec. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.
  18. S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Sun, J. Cheng, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides and high-Q resonators using a damascene process,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2378–2380 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-24-25283 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, W. Li, D. L. Kwong, “Effect of cladding layer and subsequent heat treatment on hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23676–23683 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-21-23676 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Rao, F. G. D. Corte, C. Sumonte, “Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10039s (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).
  27. Z. E. Smith, S. Wagner, “Band tails, entropy, and equilibrium defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(6), 688–691 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-14-14474 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

2013

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, W. Li, D. L. Kwong, “Effect of cladding layer and subsequent heat treatment on hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23676–23683 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-21-23676 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-20-22-24600 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-6-5668 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan, S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8998–9005 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-9-8998 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-10-9809 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-14-14474 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-24-25283 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rao, F. G. D. Corte, C. Sumonte, “Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10039s (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, J. Cheng, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides and high-Q resonators using a damascene process,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2378–2380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

2005

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Elec. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

1987

Z. E. Smith, S. Wagner, “Band tails, entropy, and equilibrium defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(6), 688–691 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramov, A.

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

Agarwal, A. M.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Amano, S.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amthor, J.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arai, S.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Atsumi, Y.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baldini, E.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M. A.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Benyattou, T.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Binetti, P. R. A.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Bogaerts, W.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 552–554 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cabarrocas, P. R. I.

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

Cheng, J.

Chiwaki, M.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Clemmen, S.

Corte, F. G. D.

S. Rao, F. G. D. Corte, C. Sumonte, “Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10039s (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elshaari, A. W.

Emplit, P.

Fedeli, J. M.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Fellah, S.

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Foster, A. C.

Foster, M. A.

Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

Hadjadj, A.

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

Han, B.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Harke, A.

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Elec. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

Hata, N.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, T.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horn, O.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

Ishikawa, H.

Itoga, E.

Jeannot, S.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Jeppesen, P.

Ji, H.

Kail, F.

F. Kail, S. Fellah, A. Abramov, A. Hadjadj, P. R. I. Cabarrocas, “Experimental evidence for extended hydrogen diffusion in silicon thin films during light-soaking,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 362, 1083–1086 (2006).

Kamei, T.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-6-5668 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

Kidoh, H.

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kobayashi, Y.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Elec. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kumeda, M.

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

Kung, C.-C.

Kuyken, B.

Kwong, D. L.

Lacava, C.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Li, W.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipka, T.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Manako, S.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Mashima, S.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Massar, S.

Mathies, R. A.

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, A.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

Mcelheny, P. J.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

R. Sun, J. Cheng, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides and high-Q resonators using a damascene process,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2378–2380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Mikado, T.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mori, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-6-5668 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

Morthier, G.

Mueller, J.

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Elec. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, K.

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

Narayanan, K.

Nishiyama, N.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Waveguides Vertically Stacked on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ogasawara, T.

Ohgaki, H.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okano, M.

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-6-5668 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

B. Han, R. Orobtchouk, T. Benyattou, P. R. A. Binetti, S. Jeannot, J. M. Fedeli, X. J. M. Leijtens, “Comparison of optical passive integrated devices based on three materials for optical clock distribution,” in Proceedings of ECIO 07 (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Paegel, B. M.

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrillo, K. G.

Preble, S. F.

Pu, M.

Qian, W.

Rao, S.

S. Rao, F. G. D. Corte, C. Sumonte, “Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10039s (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-6-5668 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, J. R.

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvaraja, S. K.

Shafiiha, R.

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, H. Kidoh, M. Matsumoto, A. Morimoto, M. Kumeda, “Photo-created defects in a-Si:H as elucidated by ESR, LESR and CPM,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 114, 630–632 (1989).

Shoji, Y.

Skelley, A. M.

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sleeckx, E.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Z. E.

Z. E. Smith, S. Wagner, “Band tails, entropy, and equilibrium defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(6), 688–691 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparacin, D. K.

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

T. Kamei, B. M. Paegel, J. R. Scherer, A. M. Skelley, R. A. Street, R. A. Mathies, “Integrated hydrogenated amorphous Si photodiode detector for microfluidic bioanalytical devices,” Anal. Chem. 75(20), 5300–5305 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suda, S.

Sumonte, C.

S. Rao, F. G. D. Corte, C. Sumonte, “Low-loss amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on indium tin oxide,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 10039s (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

R. Sun, J. Cheng, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides and high-Q resonators using a damascene process,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2378–2380 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, “ Low loss amorphous silicon channel waveguides for integrated photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Ottawa, Canada, 2006), pp. 255–257.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takei, R.

R. Takei, M. Suzuki, E. Omoda, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Silicon knife-edge taper waveguide for ultralow-loss spot-size converter fabricated by photolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, K. Nakanishi, R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, M. Okano, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Nanometer-scale thickness control of amorphous silicon using isotropic wet-etching and low loss wire waveguide fabrication with the etched material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(25), 251108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, Y. Sakakibara, “Low-loss optical interlayer transfer for three-dimensional optical interconnect,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Seoul, South Korea, 2013), pp. 91–92.
[CrossRef]

Tanizawa, K.

Tartara, L.

C. Lacava, P. Minzioni, E. Baldini, L. Tartara, J. M. Fedeli, I. Cristiani, “Nonlinear characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides and analysis of carrier dynamics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomimasu, T.

R. Suzuki, Y. Kobayashi, T. Mikado, A. Matsuda, P. J. Mcelheny, S. Mashima, H. Ohgaki, M. Chiwaki, T. Yamazaki, T. Tomimasu, “Characterization of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films by a Pulsed Positron Beam,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(10), 2438–2441 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, K.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, T.

T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, K. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, T. Hirao, “Deposition and extensive light soaking of highly pure hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2380 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Wagner, S.

Z. E. Smith, S. Wagner, “Band tails, entropy, and equilibrium defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(6), 688–691 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.-Y.

Yamazaki, T.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)-(d) Cross-sectional SEM images of the fabricated wire and ridge waveguides. The sample IDs are defined in Table 1. (e)-(f) Normalized main electrical field profiles (Ex) that were calculated by FDM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured propagation losses of the waveguides with the 220-nm-thick Si cores. The error bars show the standard deviations ( ± σ) of the measured transmittances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured wavelength dependences of each fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sub-gap absorption spectrum of a 1-μm-thick a-Si:H film measured using the CPM and T&R method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of the surfaces of (a) as-grown a-Si:H, and (b) commercially available SOI.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) AFM image of the polished a-Si:H surface. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image, and (c) the main electrical mode profile of the q-TE mode for the AR440 waveguide.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured propagation losses of waveguides with 440-nm-thick a-Si:H cores. The error bars show the standard deviations ( ± σ) of the measured losses. The inset shows the wavelength dependence of the transmittance in the C-band for the 17-mm-long waveguide.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Waveguide Dimensions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of material losses in a-Si:H films

Tables Icon

Table 3 AR440 waveguide dimensions

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