Abstract

Designated eye position (DEP) and viewing zone (VZ) are important optical parameters for designing a two-view autostereoscopic display. Although much research has been done to date, little empirical evidence has been found to establish a direct relationship between design and measurement. More rigorous studies and verifications to investigate DEP and to ascertain the VZ criterion will be valuable. We propose evaluation metrics based on equivalent luminance (EL) and binocular luminance (BL) to figure out DEP and VZ for a two-view autostereoscopic display. Simulation and experimental results prove that our proposed evaluation metrics can be used to find the DEP and VZ accurately.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).
  17. K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

2010 (2)

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

2008 (1)

T. Järvenpää, M. Salmimaa, “Optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 16(8), 825–833 (2008).

2003 (2)

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Bignon, T.

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, V. Collomb-Patton, “A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument,” Proc. SPIE7237, (2009).

Boher, P.

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, V. Collomb-Patton, “A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument,” Proc. SPIE7237, (2009).

Chang, W. H.

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. H.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

Chen, Y. H.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

Chou, Y. H.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Collomb-Patton, V.

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, V. Collomb-Patton, “A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument,” Proc. SPIE7237, (2009).

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of the Cambridge autostereoscopic display,” Appl. Opt. 35(10), 1705–1710 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamagishi, G.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Hayasaki, Y.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hisatake, Y.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

Horikoshi, T.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Hsu, W. H.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

Hsueh, W. J.

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, W.-J.

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. C.

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, K.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Järvenpää, T.

T. Järvenpää, M. Salmimaa, “Optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 16(8), 825–833 (2008).

Kimura, T.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koike, T.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Lee, K.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leroux, T.

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, V. Collomb-Patton, “A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument,” Proc. SPIE7237, (2009).

Liao, C. C.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

Lin, H. Y.

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

Mashitani, K.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Matsumoto, S.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, S.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

Miyazawa, A.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Muguruma, S.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, Y.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, N.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, T.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Salmimaa, M.

T. Järvenpää, M. Salmimaa, “Optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 16(8), 825–833 (2008).

Sato, T.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Tsai, C. H.

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-H.

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, S.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Ujike, H.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Wang, N. Y.

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, N.-Y.

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

Yamamoto, H.

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J. C.

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, J. H. C.

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuuki, A.

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, S. Matsumoto, S. Suyama, “Viewing-Zone Control of Light-Emitting Diode Panel for Stereoscopic Display and Multiple Viewing Distances,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(9), 359–366 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Info. Disp. (4)

T. Järvenpää, M. Salmimaa, “Optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 16(8), 825–833 (2008).

K. C. Huang, F. H. Chen, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, Y. H. Chou, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, “A crosstalk Model and its Application to Stereoscopic and Autostereoscopic Displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 249–262 (2013).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, S. Miyazaki, N. Watanabe, Y. Hisatake, H. Ujike, “Influence of 3-D cross-talk on qualified viewing spaces in two- and multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 18(7), 483–493 (2010).

K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, L. Lin, H. Y. Lin, F. H. Chen, C. C. Liao, Y. H. Chen, K. Lee, W. H. Hsu, “A Study of Optimal Viewing Distance in a Parallax Barrier 3D Display,” J. Soc. Info. Disp. 21(6), 263–270 (2013).

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Yamamoto, T. Sato, S. Muguruma, Y. Hayasaki, Y. Nagai, Y. Shimizu, N. Nishida, “Stereoscopic Full-Color Light Emitting Diode Display Using Parallax Barrier for Different Interpupillary Distances,” Opt. Rev. 9(6), 244–250 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

N. A. Dodgson, “Analysis of the viewing zone of multi-view autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 254–265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. H. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N. Y. Wang, “A study of how crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, C.-H. Tsai, K. J. Lee, W.-J. Hsueh, “Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display,” Proc. SPIE 4080, 78–86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Huang, J. C. Yuan, C. H. Tsai, W. J. Hsueh, N.-Y. Wang, “How crosstalk affects stereopsis in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 5006, 247–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, V. Collomb-Patton, “A new way to characterize autostereoscopic 3D displays using Fourier optics instrument,” Proc. SPIE7237, (2009).

C. O. Spring, “Perception of Luminance Uniformity: Comparing Photometric Calculations to Subjective Perceptions of Uniformity,” Master Thesis, University of Colorado (2002), http://www.craigspring.com/images/Lum_Uniform_Thesis_Screen.pdf .

EBU – TECH 3320, “User requirements for Video Monitors in Television Production,” https://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3320.pdf .

K. C. Huang, C. L. Wu, F. H. Chen, L. C. Lin, K. Lee, and H. Y. Lin, “Evaluation Metric for Binocular Luminance Difference,” Proc. China Display/Asia Display, 168–171 (2011).

A. Yuuki, S. Uehara, K. Taira, G. Hamagishi, K. Izumi, T. Nomura, K. Mashitani, A. Miyazawa, T. Koike, T. Horikoshi, H. Ujike, “Viewing Zones of Autostereoscopic Displays and their Measurement Methods,” Proc. 15th IDW, 1111–1114 (2008).

H. Yamamoto, M. Kouno, S. Muguruma, Y.Hayaski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Kouno, Y. Shimizum, and N. Nishida, “Optimization of stereoscopic full color LED display using parallax barrier to enlarge viewing areas,” Proc. Asia Display/ IDW, 1303–1306 (2001).

K. C. Huang, C. L. Wu, C. C. Liao and K. Lee, “3D display measurement for DEP,” IMID Digest. 1018-1021 (2009).

W. H. Chang, K. C. Huang, Y. H. Chou, H. Y. Lin, K. Lee, “A Novel Evaluation Method for 3D Display Viewing-Zone,” Proc. SID, 1279–1282 (2012).
[CrossRef]

International Committee for Display Metrology, Information Display Measurements Standard (SID, 2012), Chap 17.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for a two-view autostereoscopic display design. The figure is for illustration and not to the scale. In practice, Z>>f and PE >>PD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The VZ defined by geometric line plot from side sub-pixels. The figure is for illustration and not to the scale. In practice, Z is much greater than f and PE is much greater than PD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured angular luminance profile for point 2. (b) The measured points on the screen and W is the horizontal screen size.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The notations of luminance metric. The monocular luminance from a specified point showed in (a), and the monocular equivalent luminance from multiple points showed in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram for the binocular luminance. This figure shows the equivalent luminance for two eyes and the binocular luminance is defined for the center point between the two eyes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flow chart of the novel metric for VZ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) ∆X for difference aperture of sub-pixel on OVD when aB = 0.334, aD = 0.5. (b) ∆X for difference aperture of sub-pixel on OVD when aB = 0.334, aD = 0.7. (c) ∆Z of the main lobe when aB = 0.334, aD = 0.5. (d) ∆Z of the main lobe when aB = 0.334, aD = 0.7. In (c) and (d), the + x directions are into the paper.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Equivalent luminance map in X-Z plane for the right eye (LReq) from side points 1 and 3. The peak luminance locates at (x, y, z) = (−3.5, 0, 285~295). (b) Equivalent luminance map in X-Z plane for the right eye (LReq) from three points 1 to 3. The peak luminance of each pattern locates at (x, y, z) = (−19.5~-20, 0, 291~300).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Top view for SCT maps in X-Z plane. The maps show the qualifed space for (a) XR<1% and (b) XR<3%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Top view for uniformity maps in X-Z plane. The maps show the qualifed space for (a) UR>60%, and (b) UR>80%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Equivalent luminance map for right eye (LReq) from 3 points). (b) Qualified equivalent luminance map for right eye (LReq) map (XR<3%) (c) Qualified equivalent luminance map for right eye (LReq) map (UR>60%). (d) Qualified equivalent luminance map for right eye (LReq) map (UR>60% and XR<3%). In (b), (c), and (d), the location of peak luminance would be not affected by qualified crosstalk and uniformity maps.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Binocular luminance map LBi-2 from center point 2, the peak luminance locates at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 144~169).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Binocular luminance map LBi from points 1, 2 and 3. (b) Qualified binocular luminance map map (UL>60%; UR >60% and XL<3%; XR<3%). The peak luminance locates at (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 144~148).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Binocular luminance map from 3 points, the peak luminance locates at (x, y, z) = (0, 0,94.5~94.75). (b) Qualified binocular luminance map map (UL>60%; UR >60% and XL<3%; XR<3%).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experiment set-up for aB, aD and VZ relationship test. Two color filters are added to separate the light from two sides. The width of each bright area with color filter is 1.5 cm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental results for (aB, aD) equal to (a) (0.334, 0.5), (c) (0.334, 0.7), and (e) (0.5, 0.7). A Penny (one cent, of 1.905 cm in diameter) is put on the VZ to evaluate the size of VZ. 16(b), 16(d), and 16(f) are the zoom in pictures of 16(a), and 16(c), and 16(e), respectively. And the blue lines on 16(b), 16(d), and 16(f) are the areas estimated by geometric approach.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Binocular luminance LBi map from 3 points, and the peak luminance locates at (x, y, z) = (0.25, 0, 102.5~102.75).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Experiment for verifying the reconstruction map based on equivalent luminance. Calcuated peak LReq at the first lobe ( + 1) is at (x, y, z) = (17.5~17.75, 0, 103~104.5). The observed pictures for (a) a B/W pattern and (b) natural picture are shown at the observation point (17.5, 0, 103) marked at (c). Those for (d) a B/W pattern and (e) natural picture are shown at the observation point (15.5, 0, 103) marked at (f).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparisons between the geometric approach and the EL metric for delta x. Unit for ∆X: cm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparisons between the geometric approach and the EL metric for delta z. Unit for ∆Z: cm.

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P B 2P D = Z Z+f .
P E P D = Z f .
Z= P E f P D ,
P B = 2P E P D P E + P D ,
E ( P D ( N 3 2 + a D 2 ),0,0 ),
F ( 1 2 P B ( N1 a B ),0,f ),
E' ( P D ( N 1 2 + 1 2 a D ),0,0 ),
F' ( 1 2 P B ( N1 a B ),0,f ).
L1 : z= f[ x+P D ( N-1.5+0 .5a D ) ] -P B ( 0.5N-0.5-0 .5a B ) +P D ( N-1.5+0 .5a D ) ,
L2 : z= f[ x-P D ( N-0.5+0 .5a D ) ] P B ( 0.5N-0.5-0 .5a B ) -P D ( N-0.5+0 .5a D ) ,
L3 : z= f[ x+P D ( N-1.5-0 .5a D ) ] -P B ( 0.5N-0.5+0 .5a B ) +P D ( N-1.5-0 .5a D ) ,
L4 : z= f[ x-P D ( N-0.5-0 .5a D ) ] P B ( 0.5N-0.5+0 .5a B ) -P D ( N-0.5-0 .5a D ) .
C ( P B P D ( 2a B + a D -1 ) 2( P B -2P D ) ,0, 2P D f P B -2P D ),
B ( P B P D ( 2a B + a D -1 ) 2( P B -2P D ) ,0, 2P D f P B -2P D ).
ΔX=P D P B 2a B +a D 2P D -P B =P E (2a B +a D ),
ΔZ= P D f( 2N-a D -2 ) P D ( 2N-a D -2 ) -P B ( N+a B -1 ) - P D f( 2N+a D -2 ) P D ( 2N+a D -2 ) -P B ( N-a B -1 ) = 2P B P D f( N-1 )( 2a B +a D ) ( N-1 ) 2 ( P B -2P D ) 2 - ( a B P B +a D P D ) 2 .
ΔZ~ 4P D 2 f(N-1)(2a B +a D ) (N-1) 2 (2P D 2 /P E ) 2 -(2a B P D +a D P D ) 2 .
ΔZ~ 4fN(2a B +a D ) (W/P E ) 2 -(2a B +a D ) 2 ,
Z= P E f P D ~ P E f×2N W .
ΔZ~ 2 ZW P E (2a B +a D ) (W/P E ) 2 -(2a B +a D ) 2 .
ΔZ~ 2ZP E (2a B +a D ) W ~ 2ZΔX W .
L Req = ( L R1 × L R2 × L R3 ) (1/3) .
L Req = ( n=1 m L Rn ) (1/m) .
X R = L RWK L RKK L RKW L RKK .
U R (%)= L R min L Rmax ×100%.
L Bi (x,y,z)= ( L Leq ( x L , y L , z L )× L Req ( x R , y R , z R )) 1/2 ,
( (x x L ) 2 + (y y L ) 2 + (z z L ) 2 ) 1/2 =( (x x R ) 2 + (y y R ) 2 + (z z R ) 1/2 )=IPD/2.
Z= P E f P D n B .

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