Abstract

Micro-patterned PDMS film was fabricated and combined with LED chip on board (COB) package to improve the emission uniformity of LED chip. The micro scale patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) was used as a mold to fabricate micro-cone patterned PDMS (MC-PDMS) film. A strong scattering effect from this MC-PDMS film can be verified by the high haze ratio and the Bi-directional Transmission effect. The angle dependent color temperature measurement system was used to measure the ΔCCT of COB with and without MC-PDMS. The measurement results indicate that the ΔCCT was reduced from 1025K to 428K. This improvement can effectively eliminate the yellow ring effect of LED chip. This technology can be thus considered as a cost-effective way for the next generation of light source packages.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: Mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” in Solid State Lighting and Displays, I. T. Ferguson, Y. S. Park, N. Narendran, and S. P. DenBaars, eds. (SPIE, 2001), pp. 137–147.
  4. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Realization of High Spatial Color Uniformity for White light-Emitting Diodes by Remote Hemispherical YAG: Ce Phosphor Film,” in 2010 Proceedings 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference(2010), pp. 1703–1707.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Lau, Chip On Board Technologies for Multichip Modules (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).
  8. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, “Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 3), A261–A271 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, C.-C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, C.-C. Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10612–10621 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hung, C. H. Tien, “Phosphor-converted LED modeling by bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 18(Suppl 3), A261–A271 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arif, R. A.

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. J.

Cheong, H. S.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chih Chun, K.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ching-Hua, C.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuong, T. V.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y. K.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, H. V.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao-Chung, K.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. H.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. Y.

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. H.

Hung, C. W.

Kim, H. G.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, B. H.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. T.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P. T.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, X. H.

Li, X. F.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. L.

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Po Chun, L.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sher, C. W.

Shih, M. H.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shing-Chung, W.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with polydimethylsiloxane concave microstructures,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13747–13757 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tien, C. H.

Tien-Chang, L.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

Tsai, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. Y.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ya-Ju, L.

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of Remote Phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, F. So, “Light Extraction of Organic Light Emitting Diodes by Defective Hexagonal-Close-Packed Array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO(2)/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Cuong, H. S. Cheong, H. G. Kim, H. Y. Kim, C. H. Hong, E. K. Suh, H. K. Cho, B. H. Kong, “Enhanced light output from aligned micropit InGaN-based light emitting diodes using wet-etch sapphire patterning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid. St (1)

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. C. Chang, X. F. Li, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Liu, “Pattern-Coverage Effect on Light Extraction Efficiency of GaN LED on Patterned-Sapphire Substrate,” Electrochem. Solid. St 15(3), H72–H74 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

K. J. Chen, H. V. Han, B. C. Lin, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, S. H. Chien, K. Y. Wang, H. H. Tsai, P. Yu, P. T. Lee, C. C. Lin, H. C. Kuo, “Improving the Angular Color Uniformity of Hybrid Phosphor Structures in White Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(10), 1280–1282 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant (1)

L. Ya-Ju, C. Ching-Hua, K. Chih Chun, L. Po Chun, L. Tien-Chang, K. Hao-Chung, W. Shing-Chung, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE. Photonic. Tech. L 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photonics. J. (1)

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE. Photonics. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Lin, W. L. Liu, C. Y. Hsieh, “Scalar scattering model of highly textured transparent conducting oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(1), 014508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol (2)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in White Light-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, H. V. Han, H. H. Tsai, H. T. Kuo, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO₂ nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

N. Narendran, N. Maliyagoda, L. Deng, and R. Pysar, “Characterizing LEDs for general illumination applications: Mixed-color and phosphor-based white sources,” in Solid State Lighting and Displays, I. T. Ferguson, Y. S. Park, N. Narendran, and S. P. DenBaars, eds. (SPIE, 2001), pp. 137–147.

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Realization of High Spatial Color Uniformity for White light-Emitting Diodes by Remote Hemispherical YAG: Ce Phosphor Film,” in 2010 Proceedings 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference(2010), pp. 1703–1707.
[CrossRef]

J. Lau, Chip On Board Technologies for Multichip Modules (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of (a) PSS mold and (b)MC-PDMS film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fabrication flow of MC-PDMS chip on board sample and (b) Illustrations of patterned up and patterned down MC-PDMS samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The angular-dependent CCT and (b) ΔCCT of COB without PDMS (reference), with patterned up MC-PDMS and the patterned down MC-PDMS covering on the top of COB package.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The yellow/blue light ratio of COB with and without MC-PDMS films on the top of the COB package.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The measured wavelength-dependent haze intensity of patterned up MC-PDMS, patterned down MC-PDMS and the flat PDMS. (b) the sketches of patterned up and patterned down.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) BTDF measurement from 0 to 50°. (b) Sum of the BTDF measurement in polar coordinate.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Haze ( % ) = T diffraction / T total  ×100%
I(q) = I 0 ×cosθ
tanθ λ b

Metrics