Abstract

We discuss an optical isolator design based on tandem phase modulators in a long interferometer. It provides low-loss, broadband isolation in a photonic integrated circuit without requiring special materials or fabrication steps. It was demonstrated in silicon photonics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-μm wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973–1975 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kroemer, J. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19, 11740–11745 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3, 91–94 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Doerr, N. Dupuis, L. Zhang, “Optical isolator using two tandem phase modulators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4293–4295 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, “Tandem-phase-modulator-based optical isolator in silicon,” European Conf. Opt. Comm., postdeadline (2013).

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3, 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-μm wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973–1975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.

Cadieu, F. J.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

C. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, “Tandem-phase-modulator-based optical isolator in silicon,” European Conf. Opt. Comm., postdeadline (2013).

Dionne, G.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C.

C. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, “Tandem-phase-modulator-based optical isolator in silicon,” European Conf. Opt. Comm., postdeadline (2013).

Doerr, C. R.

Dupuis, N.

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3, 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fratello, V. J.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, H.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hseih, I.-W.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kroemer, H.

Levy, M.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

M. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kroemer, J. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19, 11740–11745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-μm wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973–1975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, J. R.M.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pintus, P.

Ross, C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-μm wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973–1975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, Y.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.

Vermeulen, D.

C. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, “Tandem-phase-modulator-based optical isolator in silicon,” European Conf. Opt. Comm., postdeadline (2013).

Wolfe, R.

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wust, F.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3, 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I.-W. Hseih, R. Osgood, “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wust, R. Noe, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Levy, J. R.M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-μm wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973–1975 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. Kim, G. Dionne, L. Kimerling, C. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5, 1–5 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3, 91–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

C. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, “Tandem-phase-modulator-based optical isolator in silicon,” European Conf. Opt. Comm., postdeadline (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed integrated optical isolators. (a) one-arm, (b) two-arm, and (c) four-arm designs. PM = phase modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed broad-band general isolator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated performance of the isolator designs using a cw input. The rows show results for the one-arm, two-arm, and four-arm designs, respectively. f = 10 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated performance of the isolator designs using a broadband input. The rows show results for the one-arm, two-arm, and four-arm designs, respectively. f = 10 GHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated broadband isolation vs. number of interferometer arms, N.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic and (b) photograph of the optical isolator in silicon photonics. The schematic does not show the grating coupler portion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured performance of the isolator with a cw laser input. The reference is taken with the modulators turned off.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured performance of the isolator with amplified spontaneous emission input. The reference is taken with the modulators turned off.

Equations (3)

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e j A sin [ 2 π f ( t Δ T ) ] e j A cos ( 2 π f t ) ,
e j A cos [ 2 π f ( t Δ T ) ] e j A sin ( 2 π f t ) ,
T backward = n = [ J n N ( 2 A ) ] 2

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