Abstract

We report the photo-isomerization and electro-isomerization effects in azobenzenes-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals during the switching of the liquid crystal (LC) device between transparent (cis-isomers dominant) and scattering states (trans-isomers dominant). The isothermal phase transition, which is a result of the illumination of UV light and the application of DC voltage, was the main mechanism to switch the LC device between transparency, scattering, and gray scales. This study discusses in detail the variations in the population of cis-isomers as functions of the period and the amplitude of the applied DC voltage.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1325–1327 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, “Optical switching behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composite films with various novel azobenzene derivatives,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(2), 789–799 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).
  6. H. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 797–800 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. Lampert, “Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 76(4), 489–499 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. M. Lampert, “Smart switchable glazing for solar energy and daylight control,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 52(3-4), 207–221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).
  14. A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).
  16. K. J. Yang, D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. M. Leslie, “Continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals,” Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 4(3), 167–175 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, “All-optically controllable and highly efficient scattering mode light modulator based on azobenzene liquid crystals and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18492–18500 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. F. Rabek and G. W. Scott, Photochemistry and Photophysics (Taylor & Francis, 1989)
  31. T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Wang, R. G. Weiss, “Thermal cis to trans isomerization of covalently attached azobenzene groups in undrawn and drawn polyethylene films. Characterization and comparisons of occupied sites,” Macromolecules 36(11), 3833–3840 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Mada, K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid‐crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

K. J. Yang, D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, “Optical switching behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composite films with various novel azobenzene derivatives,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(2), 789–799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. M. Lampert, “Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 76(4), 489–499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, R. G. Weiss, “Thermal cis to trans isomerization of covalently attached azobenzene groups in undrawn and drawn polyethylene films. Characterization and comparisons of occupied sites,” Macromolecules 36(11), 3833–3840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 797–800 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. M. Lampert, “Smart switchable glazing for solar energy and daylight control,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 52(3-4), 207–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Leslie, “Continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals,” Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 4(3), 167–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

H. Mada, K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid‐crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

Bao, R.

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, Y. D.

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, “All-optically controllable and highly efficient scattering mode light modulator based on azobenzene liquid crystals and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18492–18500 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, K. T.

Chien, L. C.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doane, J. W.

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, T.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferjani, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, “All-optically controllable and highly efficient scattering mode light modulator based on azobenzene liquid crystals and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18492–18500 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hagiwara, H.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hervet, H.

H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Horiuchi, S.

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U.

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. J.

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. Q.

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karanjit, D. B.

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, S.

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lampert, C. M.

C. M. Lampert, “Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 76(4), 489–499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lampert, “Smart switchable glazing for solar energy and daylight control,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 52(3-4), 207–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasia, A.

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leslie, F. M.

F. M. Leslie, “Continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals,” Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 4(3), 167–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. S.

S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. K.

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. G. Fuh, C. C. Chen, C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, “Polarizer-free, electrically switchable and optically rewritable displays based on dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7088–7094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. M.

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. Z.

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, “Optical switching behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composite films with various novel azobenzene derivatives,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(2), 789–799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. C.

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, Y. D. Chen, A. Y. G. Fuh, “All-optically controllable and highly efficient scattering mode light modulator based on azobenzene liquid crystals and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18492–18500 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. F.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mada, H.

H. Mada, K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid‐crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osajima, K.

H. Mada, K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid‐crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, M.

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 797–800 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rondelez, F.

H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serak, S. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tazuke, S.

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Volume holographic image storage and electro-optical readout in a polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1325–1327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X.

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tryk, D. A.

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. S.

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbach, W.

H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, R. G. Weiss, “Thermal cis to trans isomerization of covalently attached azobenzene groups in undrawn and drawn polyethylene films. Characterization and comparisons of occupied sites,” Macromolecules 36(11), 3833–3840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, “Optical switching behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composite films with various novel azobenzene derivatives,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(2), 789–799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R. G.

C. Wang, R. G. Weiss, “Thermal cis to trans isomerization of covalently attached azobenzene groups in undrawn and drawn polyethylene films. Characterization and comparisons of occupied sites,” Macromolecules 36(11), 3833–3840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 797–800 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xia, D. L.

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

Yang, D. K.

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

K. J. Yang, D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

Yoon, D. Y.

K. J. Yang, D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of the reflection of cholesterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T. J. Bunning, “Holographic formation of electro-optical polymer-liquid crystal photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 14(3), 187–191 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, S. Ferjani, A. Veltri, C. Umeton, “Composite holographic gratings containing light-responsive liquid crystals for visible bichromatic switching,” Adv. Mater. 22(21), 2316–2319 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

X. Tong, M. Pelletier, A. Lasia, Y. Zhao, “Fast cis-trans isomerization of an azobenzene derivative in liquids and liquid crystals under a low electric field,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(19), 3596–3599 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Bao, C. M. Liu, D. K. Yang, “Smart bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. K. Yang, L. C. Chien, J. W. Doane, “Cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer dispersion for haze-free light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(25), 3102–3104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu, M. S. Li, A. Y. G. Fuh, “Unusual refractions in photonic crystals based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, L. J. Huang, T. C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(18), 2572–2575 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, S. Zumer, “Field controlled light scattering from nematic microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(4), 269–271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. (1)

F. M. Leslie, “Continuum theory for nematic liquid crystals,” Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 4(3), 167–175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Mada, K. Osajima, “Time response of a nematic liquid‐crystal cell in a switched dc electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(9), 3111–3113 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Reflective reversed-mode polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light switches,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 797–800 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, “Optical switching behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal composite films with various novel azobenzene derivatives,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 91(2), 789–799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Hervet, W. Urbach, F. Rondelez, “Mass diffusion measurements in liquid crystals by a novel optical method,” J. Chem. Phys. 68(6), 2725–2729 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Ind. Eng. Chem. (1)

K. J. Yang, D. Y. Yoon, “Electro-optical characteristics of dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17(3), 543–548 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Enomoto, H. Hagiwara, D. A. Tryk, Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Electrostatically induced isomerization of azobenzene derivatives in langmuir-blodgett films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(38), 7422–7427 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D. B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in polymer liquid crystals with mesogenic phenyl benzoate side chains. 2. Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition behaviors,” Macromolecules 23(1), 42–48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, R. G. Weiss, “Thermal cis to trans isomerization of covalently attached azobenzene groups in undrawn and drawn polyethylene films. Characterization and comparisons of occupied sites,” Macromolecules 36(11), 3833–3840 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

Z. F. Liu, K. Hashimoto, A. Fujishima, “Photoelectrochemical information storage using an azobenzene derivative,” Nature 347(6294), 658–660 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Tabiryan, U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, “Nonlinear refraction in photoinduced isotropic state of liquid crystalline azobenzenes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(11), 113901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Y. G. Fuh, Y. C. Liu, K. T. Cheng, C. K. Liu, Y. D. Chen, “Isomerization-induced phase separation of a mixture of monomer, azobenzene, and liquid crystals,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 6(1), 37–42 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. (1)

G. Z. Liu, D. L. Xia, W. J. Yang, Z. Q. Huang, “The surface rubbing effect on morphologies of LC droplets and electro-optic properties of flexible PDLC films,” Sci. China, Ser. Biol. Chem. 52, 2329–2335 (2009).

Soft Matter (1)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. (2)

C. M. Lampert, “Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 76(4), 489–499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lampert, “Smart switchable glazing for solar energy and daylight control,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 52(3-4), 207–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, 1995).

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

J. F. Rabek and G. W. Scott, Photochemistry and Photophysics (Taylor & Francis, 1989)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dynamic variations in the transmittance of an azo-LCs-doped PDLC scattering cell with the duration of UV illumination under various UV intensities of (a) 46, (b) 39, (c) 25, (d) 18, and (e) 7 mW/cm2

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic variations in the transmittance of an azo-LCs-doped PDLC cell with the application of DC voltage (20 V). Insets show the observations of the LC cell (voltage off states) at (I) transparent state (centered circle, isotropic state with high population of cis-isomers) and (II) scattering state (nematic state with low population of cis-isomers) after the DC voltage was switched off.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time requirement of the azo-LCs-doped PDLC cell switching from transparent state to scattering state as a function of applied DC voltage. Each initially transparent state was obtained by illumination of UV laser (46 mW/cm2 for 25 s).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Population variations of cis-isomers as a function of the period of applied DC voltage (15 V) and (b) stable populations of the cis-isomers versus the amplitudes of applied DC voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variations in transmittance with the application of pulsed voltages (40 V, 2 s duration). Seven cycles are repeated. An initial high transmittance (isotropic state) was obtained by illumination of UV laser (46 mW/cm2 for 25 s).

Metrics