Abstract

Determination of the water vapor continuum absorption from 0.35 to 1 THz is reported. The THz pulses propagate though a 137 m long humidity-controlled chamber and are measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The average relative humidity along the entire THz path is precisely obtained by measuring the difference between transit times of the sample and reference THz pulses to an accuracy of 0.1 ps. Using the measured total absorption and the calculated resonance line absorption with the Molecular Response Theory lineshape, based on physical principles and measurements, an accurate continuum absorption is obtained within four THz absorption windows, that agrees well with the empirical theory. The absorption is significantly smaller than that obtained using the van Vleck-Weisskopf lineshape with a 750 GHz cut-off.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

2011

M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, M. Mandehgar, D. Grischkowsky, “Broad-band THz pulse transmission through the atmosphere,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 264–273 (2011).

E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, A. Shutler, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of the transmission of the atmosphere from 0.2 to 2 THz,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8830–8838 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. W. Rosenkranz, “Water vapor microwave continuum absorption: a comparison of measurements and models,” Radio Sci. 33(4), 919–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

1997

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz studies of collision broadened rotational lines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101(20), 3646–3660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Harde, N. Katzenellenbogen, D. Grischkowsky, “Line-shape transition of collision broadened lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(8), 1307–1310 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

1986

R. J. Hill, “Water vapor-absorption lineshape comparison using the 22-GHz line: the Van Vleck-Weisskopf shape affirmed,” Radio Sci. 21(3), 447–451 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. J. Liebe, “The atmospheric water vapor continuum below 300 GHz,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 5(2), 207–227 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1947

J. H. van Vleck, “The absorption of microwaves by oxygen,” Phys. Rev. 71(7), 413–424 (1947).
[CrossRef]

1945

J. H. Van Vleck, V. F. Weisskopf, “On the shape of collision-broadened lines,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 17(2–3), 227–236 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, J.

S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blundell, R.

S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buhler, S.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz studies of collision broadened rotational lines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101(20), 3646–3660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cianca, E.

E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delitsky, M. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Fattinger, C.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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D. M. Slocum, E. J. Slingerland, R. H. Giles, T. M. Goyette, “Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 127, 49–63 (2013).
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T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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D. M. Slocum, E. J. Slingerland, R. H. Giles, T. M. Goyette, “Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 127, 49–63 (2013).
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Y. Yang, M. Mandehgar, D. Grischkowsky, “Time domain measurement of the THz refractivity of water vapor,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26208–26218 (2012).
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Y. Yang, A. Shutler, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurement of the transmission of the atmosphere from 0.2 to 2 THz,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8830–8838 (2011).
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H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz studies of collision broadened rotational lines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101(20), 3646–3660 (1997).
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H. Harde, N. Katzenellenbogen, D. Grischkowsky, “Line-shape transition of collision broadened lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(8), 1307–1310 (1995).
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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
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Harde, H.

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz studies of collision broadened rotational lines,” J. Phys. Chem. A 101(20), 3646–3660 (1997).
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H. Harde, N. Katzenellenbogen, D. Grischkowsky, “Line-shape transition of collision broadened lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(8), 1307–1310 (1995).
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R. J. Hill, “Water vapor-absorption lineshape comparison using the 22-GHz line: the Van Vleck-Weisskopf shape affirmed,” Radio Sci. 21(3), 447–451 (1986).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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H. Harde, N. Katzenellenbogen, D. Grischkowsky, “Line-shape transition of collision broadened lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(8), 1307–1310 (1995).
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Kleiner, I.

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M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
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M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
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M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
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Kuhn, T.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
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Kunzi, K.

T. Kuhn, A. Bauer, M. Godon, S. Buhler, K. Kunzi, “Water vapor continuum: absorption measurements at 350GHz and model calculations,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 74(5), 545–562 (2002).
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Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Ma, Q.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, D. S.

M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandehgar, M.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melinger, J. S.

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Muller, H. S. P.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papa, D.

S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parshin, V. V.

M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J. C.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Pinhasi, Y.

E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Plusquellic, D. F.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Podobedov, V. B.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, E. A. Cohen, M. L. Delitsky, J. C. Pearson, H. S. P. Muller, “Sub-millimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60(5), 883–890 (1998); Access to specific catalog entries may be found at http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov/ .

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radford, S.

S. Paine, R. Blundell, D. Papa, J. Barrett, S. Radford, “A Fourier transform spectrometer for measurement of atmospheric transmission at submillimeter wavelengths,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(767), 108–118 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. W. Rosenkranz, “Water vapor microwave continuum absorption: a comparison of measurements and models,” Radio Sci. 33(4), 919–928 (1998).
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Rossi, T.

E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Sacchi, C.

E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shutler, A.

Siegrist, K. E.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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D. M. Slocum, E. J. Slingerland, R. H. Giles, T. M. Goyette, “Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 127, 49–63 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellic, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(3), 458–467 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Y. Tretyakov, A. F. Krupnov, M. A. Koshelev, D. S. Makarov, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, “Resonator spectrometer for precise broadband investigations of atmospheric absorption in discrete lines and water vapor related continuum in millimeter wave range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(9), 093106 (2009).
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Tretyakov, M. Yu.

M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110(9–10), 533–572 (2009).
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E. Cianca, T. Rossi, A. Yahalom, Y. Pinhasi, J. Farserotu, C. Sacchi, “EHF for satellite communications: the new broadband frontier,” Proc. IEEE 99(11), 1858–1881 (2011).
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M. A. Koshelev, E. A. Serov, V. V. Parshin, M. Yu. Tretyakov, “Millimeter wave continuum absorption in moist nitrogen at temperature 261-328K,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(17), 2704–2712 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption line comparison for a single resonance line normalized to unity with center frequency at 1.0 THz. vV-W (dashed line), FL (dotted line), MRT (red line between vV-W and FL lines), and the Eqs. (2), (24), (25) vV-Wc (dash-dot line) showing the abrupt cut-off at 1.75 THz (750 GHz from line center). All lineshapes have (HWHM) linewidth of 3.15 GHz . For MRT, τc = 0.2 ps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental set up with 170 m long-path system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured transmitted THz pulses and the corresponding amplitude frequency spectra for humidity levels on different days. (a) Reference pulse (top trace) and sample pulse (bottom trace). (b) Amplitude spectra corresponding to (a). (c) Reference pulse (top trace) and two sample pulses (lower traces). (d) Amplitude spectra corresponding to (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Amplitude transmission for Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3, which is the spectral ratio between the sample #2 and reference in Fig. 3(d). (b) Measured power attenuation coefficients Δ α x (open circles) in dB/km with the smoothed THz windows W1-W4 (solid lines), for the water vapor density differences of Δ ρ W = 4.1 g/m3 (bottom blue circles), Δ ρ W = 5.2 g/m3 (middle red circles) and Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3 (top black circles). For comparison the MRT calculation for Δ ρ W = 4.1 g/m3 is shown as the purple solid bottom line. (3)-(5) indicate the THz windows investigated in [19].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Illustration of the method to obtain the relative continuum absorption Δ α c x for the windows with Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3. The measured total absorption (blue circles), smoothed measured THz window (red solid line), the resonance absorption with MRT lineshape (black line). The quadratic fitting for X (black dash line) with yellow highlight for Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3. (b) The calculated cross term X absorption with a quadratic frequency dependence, Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3 (top black line), Δ ρ W = 5.2 g/m3 (middle red line), and Δ ρ W = 4.1 g/m3 (bottom blue line). (c) The continuum absorption Δ α c from Table 1 and corresponding fitting (solid lines), the linear Δ ρ W component (dash lines), and the historical curve in [24,25] for 7 g/m3 (dash dot line). The MRT calculation of Fig. 5(a) is shown as the lower red curve and is also shown as the 5X magnified red curve. The comparison between the empirical theory and historical curve below 400 GHz are also shown with a 5X magnification.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured absolute total absorption Δ α (red dots) and the resonance absorption with MRT lineshape (black line) for Δ ρ W = 7.0 g/m3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The calculated amplitude transmissions of the two different pre-factor vV-W lineshapes after 137 m propagation at RH 37% and 20 °C which is equivalent to density of 6.4 g/m3, using the quadratic term of Eq. (2) (upper black line) and using the linear term of Eq. (3) (lower red line). (b) Corresponding power attenuation in dB/km.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Determined Values of Δ α c x , X, Δ α c in dB/km at Four THz Windows with Different Density

Tables Icon

Table 2 Laboratory Determinations of Water Vapor Self and Foreign Continuum Parameters in Millimeter Wave and THz Range. CW and CA Parameters Are in Units of dB/km/(GHz hPa)2

Equations (19)

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α j ( v )= N H2O I j ( v )f( v, v j ).
f 2 ( v, v j )= 1 π ( v v j )( Δ v j ( v v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 + Δ v j ( v+ v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 ).
α c ( v,T )= v 2 ( C W 0 θ n s +3 P W 2 + C A 0 θ n f +3 P A P W ).
Δ α x = α S α R =( α MRT S + α c S )( α MRT R + α c R )=Δ α MRT +( α c S α c R )=Δ α MRT +Δ α cx .
Δ α cx = α c S α c R = v 2 [ C W * ( ( ρ W S ) 2 ( ρ W R ) 2 )+ C A * ρ A ( ρ W S ρ W R ) ].
Δ α cx = v 2 [ C W * ( 2 ρ W R Δ ρ W +Δ ρ W 2 )+ C A * ρ A Δ ρ W ].
X= v 2 C W * ( 2 ρ W R Δ ρ W ).
Δ α c =Δ α cx X= v 2 [ C W * Δ ρ W 2 + C A * ρ A Δ ρ W ].
Δα=Δ α x X.
α j ( v )= N H2O I j ( v )f( v, v j ).
α= N e 2 mc ( v v 0 ) 2 [ 1/ 2πτ ( v v 0 ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 + 1/ 2πτ ( v+ v 0 ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 ].
α j =Δ n j 8 π 2 v j | μ ba | 2 3hc ( v v j ) 2 [ 1/ 2πτ ( v v j ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 + 1/ 2πτ ( v+ v j ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 ].
n j =N f ja .
f ja = ( 2J+1 ) e E ja / kT / j,J ( 2J+1 ) e E ja / kT .
Δ n j = n j ( 1 e ( E jb E ja ) / kT ).
α j =N[ 8 π 3 3ckT v j 2 | μ ba | 2 (2J+1) e E ja / kT j,J (2J+1) e E ja / kT ] 1 π ( v v j ) 2 [ 1/ 2πτ ( v v j ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 + 1/ 2πτ ( v+ v j ) 2 + ( 1/ 2πτ ) 2 ].
f cutoff ( v, v j )= 1 π ( v v j ) 2 ( Δ v j ( v v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 + Δ v j ( v+ v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 2Δ v j v cut 2 +Δ v j 2 ).if| v v j |< v cut f cutoff ( v, v j )=0.if| v v j | v cut
f cutoff ( v, v j )= 1 π ( v v j ) 2 ( Δ v j ( v v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 + Δ v j ( v+ v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 Δ v j v cut 2 +Δ v j 2 Δ v j ( 2 v j + v cut ) 2 +Δ v j 2 ).
f cutoff ( v, v j )= 1 π ( v v j ) 2 ( Δ v j ( v v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 + Δ v j ( v+ v j ) 2 +Δ v j 2 Δ v j v cut 2 +Δ v j 2 1 ( 2 v j v cut ) 2 +Δ v j 2 )

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