Abstract

Ultrashort, intense light pulses permit the study of nanomaterials in the optical non-linear regime. Non-linear regimes are often present just below the damage threshold thus requiring careful tuning of the laser parameters to avoid melting the materials. Detailed studies of the damage threshold of nanoscale materials are therefore needed. We present results on the damage threshold of gold (Au) nanowires when illuminated by intense femtosecond pulses. These nanowires were synthesized via the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) process in two configurations: (1) free-standing Au nanowires on tungsten (W) electrodes and (2) Au nanowires attached to fused silica slides. In both cases the wires have a single-crystalline structure. For 790 nm laser pulses with durations of 108 fs and 32 fs at a repetition rate of 2 kHz, we find that the free-standing nanowires melt at intensities close to 3 TW/cm2 (194 mJ/cm2) and 7.5 TW/cm2 (144 mJ/cm2), respectively. The Au nanowires attached to silica slides melt at slightly higher intensities, just above 10 TW/cm2 (192 mJ/cm2) for 32 fs pulses. Our results can be explained with an electron-phonon interaction model that describes the absorbed laser energy and subsequent heat conduction across the wire.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (8)

M. S. Tame, K. R. McEnery, Ş. K. Özdemir, J. Lee, S. A. Maier, M. S. Kim, “Quantum plasmonics,” Nat. Phys. 9, 329–340 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. Fitrakis, I. Tomkos, “Light on a wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24, 28–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dombi, A. Hörl, P. Rácz, I. Márton, A. Trügler, J. R. Krenn, U. Hohenester, “Ultrafast strong-field photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13, 674–678 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Nagel, J. S. Robinson, B. D. Harteneck, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, J. S. Prell, D. M. Neumark, R. A. Kaindl, S. R. Leone, “Surface plasmon assisted electron acceleration in photoemission from gold nanopillars,” Chem. Phys. 414, 106–111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, P. Peng, A. Hu, G. Zou, W. W. Duley, Y. N. Zhou, “Highly localized heat generation by femtosecond laser induced plasmon excitation in Ag nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 073107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Paneru, B. N. Flanders, “Complete reconfiguration of dendritic gold,” Nanoscale 6, 833–841 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

B. N. Flanders, “Directed electrochemical nanowire assembly: Precise nanostructure assembly via dendritic solidification,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 26, 1130001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Herink, D. R. Solli, M. Gulde, C. Ropers, “Field-driven photoemission from nanostructures quenches the quiver motion,” Nature 483, 190–193 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Apalkov, M. I. Stockman, “Theory of dielectric nanofilms in strong ultrafast optical fields,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 165118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491, 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hassan, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, “Invited article: Attosecond photonics: Synthesis and control of light transients,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 111301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, I. V. Kabakova, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, F. X. Kärtner, “Optical waveform synthesizer and its application to high-harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 45, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, M. Giguère, P. Lassonde, C. A. Trallero-Herrero, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, F. Légaré, “High harmonic generation with long-wavelength few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 45, 074008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Varin, C. Peltz, T. Brabec, T. Fennel, “Attosecond plasma wave dynamics in laser-driven cluster nanoplasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 175007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dahlstrom, A. L’Huillier, A. Maquet, “Introduction to attosecond delays in photoionization,” J. Phys. B 45, 183001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19, 22029–22106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475, 78–81 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baffou, H. Rigneault, “Femtosecond-pulsed optical heating of gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 035415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, “Predicted ultrafast dynamic metallization of dielectric nanofilms by strong single-cycle optical fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, A. W. Holleitner, M. Betz, “Quantum interference control of femtosecond, μA current bursts in single GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10, 1799–1804 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Thapa, B. Ackerson, D. R. Grischkowsky, B. N. Flanders, “Directional growth of metallic and polymeric nanowires,” Nanotechnology 20, 235307 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Zhang, U. Thumm, “Attosecond photoelectron spectroscopy of metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 123601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Z. Lin, L. Zhigilei, V. Celli, “Electron-phonon coupling and electron heat capacity of metals under conditions of strong electron-phonon nonequilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075133 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Trallero-Herrero, T. C. Weinacht, “Transition from weak- to strong-field coherent control,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ozturk, B. N. Flanders, D. R. Grischkowsky, T. D. Mishima, “Single-step growth and low resistance interconnecting of gold nanowires,” Nanotechnology 18, 175707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, a. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Del Fatti, A. Arbouet, F. Vallée, “Femtosecond optical investigation of electron–lattice interactions in an ensemble and a single metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Talukdar, B. Ozturk, T. D. Mishima, B. N. Flanders, “Directed growth of single crystal indium wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Grua, J. Morreeuw, H. Bercegol, G. Jonusauskas, F. Vallée, “Electron kinetics and emission for metal nanoparticles exposed to intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Hankin, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, D. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Inouye, K. Tanaka, I. Tanahashi, K. Hirao, “Ultrafast dynamics of nonequilibrium electrons in a gold nanoparticle system,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 11334–11340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J.-Y. Bigot, J.-C. Merle, O. Cregut, A. Danuois, “Electron dynamics in copper metalic nanoparticles probed with femtosecond optical pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4702–4705 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13592–13595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. A. Kessler, J. Koplik, H. Levine, “Pattern selection in fingered growth phenomena,” Adv. Phys. 37, 255–339 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. Easley, “Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperatures in copper by picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144–2145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. I. Anisimov, B. Kapeliovich, T. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1975).

1974 (1)

G. Nash, M. E. Glicksman, “Capillarity-limited steady-state dendritic growth,” Acta Metall. 22, 1283 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

P. M. Nagel, J. S. Robinson, B. D. Harteneck, T. Pfeifer, M. J. Abel, J. S. Prell, D. M. Neumark, R. A. Kaindl, S. R. Leone, “Surface plasmon assisted electron acceleration in photoemission from gold nanopillars,” Chem. Phys. 414, 106–111 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

C. Ruppert, S. Thunich, G. Abstreiter, A. Fontcuberta i Morral, A. W. Holleitner, M. Betz, “Quantum interference control of femtosecond, μA current bursts in single GaAs nanowires,” Nano Lett. 10, 1799–1804 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackerson, B.

P. Thapa, B. Ackerson, D. R. Grischkowsky, B. N. Flanders, “Directional growth of metallic and polymeric nanowires,” Nanotechnology 20, 235307 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, I.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

K. J. Savage, M. M. Hawkeye, R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, J. J. Baumberg, “Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics,” Nature 491, 574–577 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, V.

V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, a. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anisimov, S. I.

S. I. Anisimov, B. Kapeliovich, T. Perel’man, “Electron emission from metal surfaces exposed to ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375–377 (1975).

Antonsson, E.

S. Zherebtsov, T. Fennel, J. Plenge, E. Antonsson, I. Znakovskaya, A. Wirth, O. Herrwerth, F. Süßmann, C. Peltz, I. Ahmad, S. A. Trushin, V. Pervak, S. Karsch, M. J. J. Vrakking, B. Langer, C. Graf, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, E. Rühl, M. F. Kling, “Controlled near-field enhanced electron acceleration from dielectric nanospheres with intense few-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 7, 656–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Apalkov, V.

M. Schultze, E. M. Bothschafter, A. Sommer, S. Holzner, W. Schweinberger, M. Fiess, M. Hofstetter, R. Kienberger, V. Apalkov, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light,” Nature 493, 75–78 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Apalkov, M. I. Stockman, “Theory of dielectric nanofilms in strong ultrafast optical fields,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 165118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Apalkov, M. I. Stockman, “Metal nanofilm in strong ultrafast optical fields,” arXiv:1209.2245 (2012).

Arbouet, A.

N. Del Fatti, A. Arbouet, F. Vallée, “Femtosecond optical investigation of electron–lattice interactions in an ensemble and a single metal nanoparticle,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 175–181 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baffou, G.

G. Baffou, H. Rigneault, “Femtosecond-pulsed optical heating of gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 035415 (2011).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Koos, W. Freude, V. Dolores-Calzadilla, M. Smit, I. Suarez, J. Martínez-Pastor, E. Fitrakis, I. Tomkos, “Light on a wire,” Opt. Photonics News 24, 28–35 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. Trallero-Herrero, T. C. Weinacht, “Transition from weak- to strong-field coherent control,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 063401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hankin, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, D. Rayner, “Intense-field laser ionization rates in atoms and molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

G. Easley, “Generation of nonequilibrium electron and lattice temperatures in copper by picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144–2145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lin, L. Zhigilei, V. Celli, “Electron-phonon coupling and electron heat capacity of metals under conditions of strong electron-phonon nonequilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 075133 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

P. Grua, J. Morreeuw, H. Bercegol, G. Jonusauskas, F. Vallée, “Electron kinetics and emission for metal nanoparticles exposed to intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Baffou, H. Rigneault, “Femtosecond-pulsed optical heating of gold nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 035415 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Fann, R. Storz, H. W. K. Tom, “Electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13592–13595 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Apalkov, M. I. Stockman, “Theory of dielectric nanofilms in strong ultrafast optical fields,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 165118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, “Predicted ultrafast dynamic metallization of dielectric nanofilms by strong single-cycle optical fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 086602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Varin, C. Peltz, T. Brabec, T. Fennel, “Attosecond plasma wave dynamics in laser-driven cluster nanoplasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 175007 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. T. Hassan, A. Wirth, I. Grguras, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, “Invited article: Attosecond photonics: Synthesis and control of light transients,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 111301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

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Other (5)

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC, 1993),

W. Benenson, Handbook of Physics (Springer, 2000).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, 74th ed. (Academic, 1985).

MATLAB, version 7.14 (R2012a) (The MathWorks Inc., 2012).

V. Apalkov, M. I. Stockman, “Metal nanofilm in strong ultrafast optical fields,” arXiv:1209.2245 (2012).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the optical damage threshold of single-crystalline gold nanowires. λ/2, half-wave plate; PBC, polarizing beam cube; L1, 100 mm biconvex lens; L2, 100 mm biconvex lens; BS 50/50 beam splitter; L3, 60 mm plano-convex lens; S, sample mounting point; O, 20× long working distance objective; I, image of typical sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Freestanding Au nanowire grown from a tungsten electrode: (a) SEM image of a 25 μm long undamaged wire; (b) Optical micrograph of the same nanowire as imaged in the experimental setup; (c) Optical micrograph of same nanowire shown in panel (a) post damage; (d) SEM image of typical nanowire post damage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical damage threshold distribution as a function of intensity for (a) 108 fs pulses and nanowires on fused silica slides, (b) 32 fs pulses and nanowires on fused silica slides, (c) 108 fs pulses and free standing nanowires on tungsten electrodes, and (d) 32 fs pulses and free standing nanowires on tungsten electrodes. Measured optical damage threshold distribution as a function of pulse energy for (e) 108 fs pulses and nanowires on fused silica slides, (f) 32 fs pulses and nanowires on fused silica slides, (g) 108 fs pulses and free standing nanowires on tungsten electrodes, and (h) 32 fs pulses and free standing nanowires on tungsten electrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Au nanowire cooling behavior from an initial Gaussian heat distribution with a peak temperature of 1300 K and a FWHM of 9μm (a) Temperature cooling profile as a function of both space and time in a 50 μm long Au nanowire attached to a conducting electrode. (b) Temperature line-outs of different points along the nanowire showing their temperature as a function of time after heating by a fs laser pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal profile of both lattice temperature (dashed lines) and mean electron energy (solid lines) after interaction with 7.5 TW/cm2, 2.5 TW/cm2, 0.75 TW/cm2 and 0.25 TW/cm2 32 fs laser pulse. Fast timescale electron energies (solid lines) are shown for (b) 32 fs pulses and (c) 108 fs pulses, along with the respective laser intensity temporal profiles (dot-dash lines).

Equations (9)

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C l ( T l t ) = C l κ l 2 ( T l ) + G ( T e T l ) S l a ( r , t )
C e ( T e ) ( T e t ) = C e κ e 2 ( T e ) G ( T e T l ) + S ( r , t ) ,
T l ( x , t ) t = κ l 2 ( T l ( x , t ) ) ,
C l ( T l t ) = G ( T e T l )
C e ( T e ) ( T e t ) = κ e 2 ( T e ) G ( T e T l ) + S ( r , t ) ,
S ( t , z ) = ( 1 R ) α exp ( α z ) I 0 ( t )
C l ( T l t ) = G ( T e T l )
C e ( T e ) ( T e t ) = G ( T e T l ) + S ( t ) ,
S ( t ) = ( 1 R ) α exp ( α z eff ) I 0 ( t ) ,

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