Abstract

The gain-switching dynamics of single-mode pulses were studied in blue InGaN multiple-quantum-well vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) through impulsive optical pumping. We measured the shortest single-mode pulses of 6.0 ps in width with a method of up-conversion, and also obtained the pulse width and the delay time as functions of pump powers from streak-camera measurements. Single-mode rate-equation calculations quantitatively and consistently explained the observed data. The calculations indicated that the pulse width in the present VCSELs was mostly limited by modal gain, and suggested that subpicosecond pulses should be possible within feasible device parameters.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245(4920), 843–845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).
  15. W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials (Springer, 1999).
  16. K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245(4920), 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Arakawa, Y.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J. E.

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. E.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, M.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Q.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Cingolani, R.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Domen, K.

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, G.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geels, R. S.

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Iwamura, T.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamide, K.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Kanemitsu, Y.

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Karin, J. R.

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuramata, A.

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuramoto, M.

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. Q.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. C.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Melcer, L. G.

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, T.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, T.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Morton, P. A.

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Okano, M.

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oki, T.

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245(4920), 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pudavar, H. E.

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245(4920), 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, K.

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shang, J. Z.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Someya, T.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takemoto, Y.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanahashi, T.

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, S.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, H.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, D.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Von Lehmen, A.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. X.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werner, R.

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamasaki, K.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamatsu, H.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshita, M.

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, “Gain-switched pulses from InGaAs ridge-quantum-well lasers limited by intrinsic dynamical gain suppression,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7570–7576 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Yu, J. Z.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yun, K. S.

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. P.

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

S. Tashiro, Y. Takemoto, H. Yamatsu, T. Miura, G. Fujita, T. Iwamura, D. Ueda, H. Uchiyama, K. S. Yun, M. Kuramoto, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Volumetric optical recording using a 400 nm all-semiconductor picosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Oki, K. Saito, H. Watanabe, T. Miyajima, M. Kuramoto, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “Passive and hybrid mode-locking of an external-cavity GaInN laser diode incorporating a strong saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 032104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Domen, K. Kondo, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, “Gain analysis for surface emission by optical pumping of wurtzite GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(1), 94–96 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Lau, “Gain switching of semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(4), 257–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, L. G. Melcer, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, S. W. Corzine, P. A. Morton, R. S. Geels, L. A. Coldren, “Generation of picosecond pulses with a gain-switched GaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 963–965 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kono, T. Oki, T. Miyajima, M. Ikeda, H. Yokoyama, “12 W peak-power 10 ps duration optical pulse generation by gain switching of a single-transverse-mode GaInN blue laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Chen, M. Okano, B. P. Zhang, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, Y. Kanemitsu, “Blue 6-ps short-pulse generation in gain-switched InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers via impulsive optical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 191108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhang, L. E. Cai, B. P. Zhang, S. Q. Li, F. Lin, J. Z. Shang, D. X. Wang, K. C. Lin, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, “Low threshold lasing of GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with an asymmetric coupled quantum well active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Pudavar, M. P. Joshi, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, “High-density three-dimensional optical data storage in a stacked compact disk format with two-photon writing and single photon readout,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1338–1340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(8), 1000–1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. Orenstein, A. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, N. G. Stoffel, “Transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(3), 218–220 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. G. Melcer, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, J. E. Bowers, “Picosecond dynamics of optical gain switching in vertical cavity emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1417–1425 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Q. Chen, M. Yoshita, T. Ito, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, H. Yokoyama, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, “Analysis of gain-switching characteristics including strong gain saturation effects in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 098001 (2012).

Opt. Express (1)

Science (2)

D. A. Parthenopoulos, P. M. Rentzepis, “Three-dimensional optical storage memory,” Science 245(4920), 843–845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities,” Science 285(5435), 1905–1906 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for gain-switching dynamics of InGaN VCSELs. BS: Beam splitter, SF: Sum frequency, BBO: Beta-Ba2BO4 (Beta-Barium Borate) crystal, and PMT: Photonmultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time-integrated spectra of gain-switched VCSEL with various pump powers. (b) Plot of output power vs. input power of VCSEL. (c) Waveforms of gain-switched pulses with various pump powers. Dashed line plots simulation results for waveform with pump power of 200 μW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Delay times and pulse widths of gain-switched pulses with various pump powers. Dashed lines plot simulation results.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n 2D dt =η P(t) hνmA Γ m v g g 1+ε s 2D s 2D n 2D τ r .
d s 2D dt =Γ v g g 1+ε s 2D s 2D s 2D τ p +mβ n 2D τ r .
g= g 0 ( n 2D n 0 2D )/[1+ g 0 ( n 2D n 0 2D ) g s ].
PW(ln2) τ p (1+ 1 τ p v g g s modal 1 )

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