Abstract

The propagation characteristics of spoof surface plasmon modes are studied in both real and reciprocal spaces. From the metallic square lattice, we obtain constant frequency contours by directly measuring electric fields in the microwave frequency regime. The anisotropy of the measured constant frequency contour supports the presence of the negative refraction and the self-collimation which are confirmed from measured electric fields. Additionally, we demonstrate the spoof surface plasmon beam splitter in which the splitting ratio of the self-collimated beam is controlled by varying the height of rods.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  30. T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. X. Yu, S. Fan, “Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 055601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Regan, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Equifrequency curve dispersion in dielectric-loaded plasmonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. H. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 055601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernussi, A. A.

C. J. Regan, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Equifrequency curve dispersion in dielectric-loaded plasmonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berry, S. J.

S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, T.

S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. H. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-S.

Constant, T. J.

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlem, M. S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Waele, R.

E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shin, S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 055601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. H. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowles, G. R.

G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover, 1989).

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grave de Peralta, L.

C. J. Regan, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Equifrequency curve dispersion in dielectric-loaded plasmonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, N.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Artech House, 2000).

Hibbins, A. P.

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308, 670–672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, I. R.

H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huangfu, J.

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikonen, P.

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
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C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kee, C.-S.

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
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S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
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Kim, J.-E.

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
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S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
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S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
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Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
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S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
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P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
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Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
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C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
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E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
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B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
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B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
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S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
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S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
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T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
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X. Zhang, Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
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C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
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C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
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C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
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Martin Moreno, L.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. S.

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
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Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
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E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. Y.

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
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S.-G. Lee, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Reflection minimization at two-dimensional photonic crystal interfaces,” Opt. Express 16, 4270–4277 (2008).
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S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
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Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004).
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C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
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P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
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E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
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H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

Rakich, P. T.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
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Ran, L.

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
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Rance, H. J.

H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
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C. J. Regan, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Equifrequency curve dispersion in dielectric-loaded plasmonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073105 (2012).
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C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
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S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
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T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
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S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
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H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
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J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
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J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
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P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
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P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
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B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Self-collimation of surface plasmon beams,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1916–1918 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stone, E. K.

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
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H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, S.

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vukusic, P.

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C. R.

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 055601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y.

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. J. Rance, I. R. Hooper, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Structurally dictated anisotropic designer surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Berry, T. Campbell, A. P. Hibbins, J. R. Sambles, “Surface wave resonances supported on a square array of square metallic pillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 101107 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212–1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Regan, A. Krishnan, R. Lopez-Boada, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Direct observation of photonic Fermi surfaces by plasmon tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Constant, A. P. Hibbins, A. J. Lethbridge, J. R. Sambles, E. K. Stone, P. Vukusic, “Direct mapping of surface plasmon dispersion using imaging scatterometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Lee, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Line-defect-induced bending and splitting of selfcollimated beams in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 181106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Shin, J.-T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, S. Fan, “Cut-through metal slit array as an anisotropic metamaterial film,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1116–1121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. J. Regan, L. Grave de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, “Equifrequency curve dispersion in dielectric-loaded plasmonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Zhang, Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7, 435–441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljačić, G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, “Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nat. Mater. 5, 93–96 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. R. Williams, S. R. Andrews, S. A. Maier, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, L. Martin Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Highly confined guiding of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on structured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 175–179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction by photonic crystals,” Nature 423, 604–605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Yuan, L. Shen, L. Ran, T. Jiang, J. Huangfu, J. A. Kong, “Directive emission based on anisotropic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053821 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, “Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, P. Ikonen, “Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 193105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kim, T.-T. Kim, S. S. Oh, J.-E. Kim, H. Y. Park, C.-S. Kee, “Experimental demonstration of self-collimation of spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 165109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Yu, S. Fan, “Anomalous reflections at photonic crystal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 055601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guerin, P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shin, S. Fan, “All-angle negative refraction for surface plasmon waves using a metal-dielectric-metal structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, R. de Waele, L. Kuipers, A. Polman, “Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 223901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Stein, J. Y. Laluet, E. Devaux, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon mode steering and negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 266804 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
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Science (2)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

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A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Artech House, 2000).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A sample of the square copper rod (w = 6 mm, h = 10 mm, and a = 10 mm) on the copper plate. (b) A band structure for the MSL, where a red line, gray lines, and a black line correspond to the first band, higher bands, and the light line respectively. The gray region indicated a surface wave band gap of the MSL. The region above the light line indicates the radiation modes in air. (c) Schematic of the MSL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental configuration in which two monopole antennas (light blue) used as a source and a detector, respectively. The sample is surrounded by the microwave absorber (blue). The dashed-line box corresponds to the scanning area. Schematic of (b) monopole antenna and (c) microwave absorber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured distribution of Ez at 6.13 GHz. (b) The magnitude distribution of the Fourier-transformed fields in the second BZ obtained from (a). The dashed-line box indicates the first BZ and the solid-line box is the area selected by the symmetry. White curves indicate calculated CFCs at 6.13 GHz. The direction in (a) corresponds to that in (b) due to the symmetry of a square lattice. (c) Measured CFCs (red lines) and the calculation (black lines) at a few selected frequencies. The gray box corresponds to the solid-line box in (b). (d) The measured dispersion of the first band (red line) and the calculation superposed (black line). The gray area indicates the band gap.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of Ez of (a) the positive refraction (5.9 GHz), (b) self-collimation (6.06 GHz), and (c) the negative refraction (6.2 GHz).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A magnified view of calculated CFC in which the gray area indicates wavevector region for the self-collimated beam. The dashed-line indicates maximum magnitude of the MSL/air interface parallel component of wavevectors in air. (b) Calculated CFCs for air and the MSL at 6.05 GHz. Here arrows correspond to vg of the input beam and the reflected beam. A black line corresponds to the MSL/air interface. (c) Schematic of the bending structure where the input beam undergoes total internal reflection at the MSL/air interface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of an MSL beam splitter with the single line defect. (b) Total, reflected, and transmitted powers are normalized by the input power as a function of hd at 6.05 GHz. When hd = 0.93a, a 50:50 splitter is obtained.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic of a beam splitter with the line defect which consists of 15 rods in a row with the height hd, where the dashed-line box indicates the scanning area. Selected electric field intensities with hd of (b) 0, (c) 5, and (d) 9.5 mm. at 6.06 GHz

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