Abstract

We present an approach for point spread function (PSF) engineering that allows one to shape the optical wavefront independently in both polarisation directions, with two adjacent phase masks displayed on a single liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM). The set-up employs a polarising beam splitter and a geometric image rotator to rectify and process both polarisation directions detected by the camera. We shape a single-lobe (“corkscrew”) PSF that rotates upon defocus for each polarisation channel and combine the two polarisation channels with a relative 180° phase-shift on the computer, merging them into a single PSF that exhibits two lobes whose orientation contains information about the axial position. A major advantage lies in the possibility to measure and eliminate the aberrations in the two polarisation channels independently. We demonstrate axial super-localisation of isotropically emitting fluorescent nanoparticles. Our implementation of the single-lobe PSFs follows the method proposed by Prasad [Opt. Lett.38, 585 (2013)], and thus is to the best of our knowledge the first experimental realisation of this suggestion. For comparison we also study an approach with a rotating double-helix PSFs (in only one polarisation channel) and ascertain the trade-off between localisation precision and axial working range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Pavani, R. Piestun, “Three dimensional tracking of fluorescent microparticles using a photon-limited double-helix response system,” Opt. Express 16, 22048–22057 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Pavani, J. DeLuca, R. Piestun, “Polarization sensitive, three-dimensional, single-molecule imaging of cells with a double-helix system,” Opt. Express 17, 19644–19655 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Grover, S. Quirin, C. Fiedler, R. Piestun, “Photon efficient double-helix PSF microscopy with application to 3D photo-activation localization imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3010–3020 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Backer, M. Backlund, M. Lew, W. Moerner, “Single-molecule orientation measurements with a quadrated pupil,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1521–1523 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Enderlein, “Theoretical study of detecting a dipole emitter through an objective with high numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 25, 634–636 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Torok, “Electromagnetic field in the focal region of an electric dipole wave,” Optik 104175–177 (1997).

2013 (3)

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prasad, “Rotating point spread function via pupil-phase engineering,” Opt. Lett. 38, 585–587 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Backer, M. Backlund, M. Lew, W. Moerner, “Single-molecule orientation measurements with a quadrated pupil,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1521–1523 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

S. Pavani, R. Piestun, “Three dimensional tracking of fluorescent microparticles using a photon-limited double-helix response system,” Opt. Express 16, 22048–22057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Torok, “Electromagnetic field in the focal region of an electric dipole wave,” Optik 104175–177 (1997).

1956 (1)

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “The airy pattern in systems of high angular aperture,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 69, 854 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, A.

Backer, A. S.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backlund, M.

Backlund, M. P.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. T.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bewersdorf, J.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M.

Brasselet, S.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLuca, J.

Enderlein, J.

Ferrand, P.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiedler, C.

Gould, T. J.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grover, G.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grover, S. Quirin, C. Fiedler, R. Piestun, “Photon efficient double-helix PSF microscopy with application to 3D photo-activation localization imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 3010–3020 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. T.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juette, M. F.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kress, A.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessard, M. D.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lew, M.

Lew, M. D.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlodzianoski, M. J.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W.

Moerner, W. E.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagpure, B. S.

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M.

Pavani, S.

Piestun, R.

Prasad, S.

Quirin, S.

Ranchon, H.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards, B.

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “The airy pattern in systems of high angular aperture,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 69, 854 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahl, S. J.

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savatier, J.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Torok, “Electromagnetic field in the focal region of an electric dipole wave,” Optik 104175–177 (1997).

Torok, P.

C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Torok, “Electromagnetic field in the focal region of an electric dipole wave,” Optik 104175–177 (1997).

Wang, W.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “The airy pattern in systems of high angular aperture,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 69, 854 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Kress, X. Wang, H. Ranchon, J. Savatier, H. Rigneault, P. Ferrand, S. Brasselet, “Mapping the local organization of cell membranes using excitation-polarization-resolved confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Biophys. J. 105(1), 127–136 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Meth. (1)

M. F. Juette, T. J. Gould, M. D. Lessard, M. J. Mlodzianoski, B. S. Nagpure, B. T. Bennett, S. T. Hess, J. Bewersdorf, “Three-dimensional sub-100 nm resolution fluorescence microscopy of thick samples,” Nat. Meth. 5, 527–529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, P. Torok, “Electromagnetic field in the focal region of an electric dipole wave,” Optik 104175–177 (1997).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. P. Backlund, M. D. Lew, A. S. Backer, S. J. Sahl, G. Grover, A. Agrawal, R. Piestun, W. E. Moerner, “Simultaneous, accurate measurement of the 3D position and orientation of single molecules,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 19087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Phys. Soc. B (1)

B. Richards, E. Wolf, “The airy pattern in systems of high angular aperture,” Proc. Phys. Soc. B 69, 854 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. Huang, W. Wang, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy,” Science 319(5864):810–813 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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