Abstract

Broadband Radio frequency (RF) photonic front-ends are one of the vital applications of the microwave photonics. A tunable and broadband RF photonic front-end integrating with the optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based local oscillator has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated, in which only one phase modulator (PM) is employed thanks to the characteristic of the PM. The silicon-on-insulator based narrow-bandwidth band-pass filter is introduced for signal processing. The application condition of the proposed RF photonic front-end has been discussed and the performance of the front-end has also been measured. The SFDR at a frequency of about 7.02 GHz is measured to be 88.6 dB-Hz2/3.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013

2012

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, S. Pan, S. Cai, D. Ben, “High-Performance Photonic Microwave Downconverter Based on a Frequency-Doubling Optoelectronic Oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(18), 3036–3042 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. R. Clark, R. Waterhouse, “Photonics for RF Front Ends,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(3), 87–95 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, T. K. Woodward, “Optically filtered microwave photonic links for RF signal processing applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(16), 2394–2401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, “Linearized downconverting microwave photonic link using dual-wavelength phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, “Sources: The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

2007

J. Capmany, D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Guan, A. Hajimiri, “A 24-GHz CMOS Front-End,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(2), 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. T. Logan, E. Gertel, “Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations,” Proc. SPIE 2560, 58–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Ayazi, A.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Banwell, T.

Ben, D.

Byrd, J.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany, D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, M.

Chen, R. T.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chou, J.

Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, R. Waterhouse, “Photonics for RF Front Ends,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(3), 87–95 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Conway, J. A.

Gertel, E.

R. T. Logan, E. Gertel, “Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations,” Proc. SPIE 2560, 58–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guan, X.

X. Guan, A. Hajimiri, “A 24-GHz CMOS Front-End,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(2), 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

Haas, B. M.

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, “Linearized downconverting microwave photonic link using dual-wavelength phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hajimiri, A.

X. Guan, A. Hajimiri, “A 24-GHz CMOS Front-End,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(2), 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Houshmand, B.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, R. C. J.

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

J. Chou, J. A. Conway, G. A. Sefler, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, “Photonic bandwidth compression front end for digital oscilloscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5073–5077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Krantz, B.

S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, “RF photonics for radar front-ends,” in Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Boston, MA, 965–970 (2007).

Lee, B.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

Lin, C. Y.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. T.

R. T. Logan, E. Gertel, “Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations,” Proc. SPIE 2560, 58–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lutes, G.

W. Shieh, S. X. Yao, G. Lutes, L. Maleki, “Microwave signal mixing by using a fiber-based optoelectronic oscillator for wavelength division multiplexed systems,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Tech. Dig., 358–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

L. Maleki, “Sources: The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, S. X. Yao, G. Lutes, L. Maleki, “Microwave signal mixing by using a fiber-based optoelectronic oscillator for wavelength division multiplexed systems,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Tech. Dig., 358–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, “Linearized downconverting microwave photonic link using dual-wavelength phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany, D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, “Integrated Antenna/Electro-Optic Modulator for RF Photonic Front-Ends,” Proceedings of 2011 International Microwave Symposium, Baltimore, MD, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.

Pappert, S. A.

S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, “RF photonics for radar front-ends,” in Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Boston, MA, 965–970 (2007).

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Sefler, G. A.

Seidel, D.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, S. X. Yao, G. Lutes, L. Maleki, “Microwave signal mixing by using a fiber-based optoelectronic oscillator for wavelength division multiplexed systems,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Tech. Dig., 358–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Valley, G. C.

Wang, A. X.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R.

T. R. Clark, R. Waterhouse, “Photonics for RF Front Ends,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(3), 87–95 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, R. B.

R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, “Integrated Antenna/Electro-Optic Modulator for RF Photonic Front-Ends,” Proceedings of 2011 International Microwave Symposium, Baltimore, MD, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

Xie, S.

Xie, X.

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

Yao, S. X.

W. Shieh, S. X. Yao, G. Lutes, L. Maleki, “Microwave signal mixing by using a fiber-based optoelectronic oscillator for wavelength division multiplexed systems,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Tech. Dig., 358–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

Zhu, L.

Zhu, X.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

X. Guan, A. Hajimiri, “A 24-GHz CMOS Front-End,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(2), 368–373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Mag.

T. R. Clark, R. Waterhouse, “Photonics for RF Front Ends,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 12(3), 87–95 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

B. M. Haas, T. E. Murphy, “Linearized downconverting microwave photonic link using dual-wavelength phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 1–12 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C. Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, R. T. Chen, “Highly Linear Broadband Optical Modulator Based on Electro-Optic Polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

R. C. J. Hsu, A. Ayazi, B. Houshmand, B. Jalali, “All-dielectric photonic-assisted radio front-end technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 535–538 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, “Sources: The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

R. T. Logan, E. Gertel, “Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: Theory and demonstrations,” Proc. SPIE 2560, 58–69 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, “RF photonics for radar front-ends,” in Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., Boston, MA, 965–970 (2007).

R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, “Integrated Antenna/Electro-Optic Modulator for RF Photonic Front-Ends,” Proceedings of 2011 International Microwave Symposium, Baltimore, MD, June 2011.
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, J. Byrd, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Photonic Front-end for Millimeter Wave Applications,” Proc. of 33rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 1–2, November 2008.

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, P. Koonath, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “RF photonic receiver front-end based on crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators,” Proc. of 2009 IEEE Radar Conference, 1–6, May 2009.
[CrossRef]

W. Shieh, S. X. Yao, G. Lutes, L. Maleki, “Microwave signal mixing by using a fiber-based optoelectronic oscillator for wavelength division multiplexed systems,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Tech. Dig., 358–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Notional diagram of simplex radar system consisting of a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC), Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), transmitter and the proposed RF photonic front-end. The proposed RF photonic front-end contains the mixing process with a feedback loop to generate the LO, a signal processor and the photo-detector (PD) based down-converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the simple photonic front-end integrating with the OEO based LO for mixing and signal processor, (b) three rounds of the OEO loop. The alternative between the dashed and the solid arrow line of IF means the generation of new components and the old is vanished.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The electric spectrum of the OEO-based LO (b) the phase noise of the LO at frequency of 5.5 GHz, 6.128 GHz and 7.227 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of the proposed RF photonic front-end integrating with the LO at a frequency of about 7.227 GHz. The two tone signal is centered at 7.02 GHz with a separation of about 10 MHz. (a) electrical spectrum of down-converted IF signal, (b) the measured SFDR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The operation frequency range of the RF input signal at different input power in the proposed RF photonic front-end.

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