Abstract

A novel technological approach to space division multiplexing (SDM) based on the use of multiple individual fibers embedded in a common polymer coating material is presented, which is referred to as Multi-Element Fiber (MEF). The approach ensures ultralow crosstalk between spatial channels and allows for cost-effective ways of realizing multi-spatial channel amplification and signal multiplexing/demultiplexing. Both the fabrication and characterization of a passive 3-element MEF for data transmission, and an active 5-element erbium/ytterbium doped MEF for cladding-pumped optical amplification that uses one of the elements as an integrated pump delivery fiber is reported. Finally, both components were combined to emulate an optical fiber network comprising SDM transmission lines and amplifiers, and illustrate the compatibility of the approach with existing installed single-mode WDM fiber systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (2)

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electronics 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Abedin, K. S.

Aiso, K.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alam, S.-U.

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, B. Inan, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, Z. Li, P. S. Teh, A. Dhar, J. Sahu, F. Poletti, S.-U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber amplifier for mode-division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10383–10392 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anotnio-Lopez, E.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

Arroija, D. M.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Awaji, Y.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bai, N.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Belal, M.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bookey, H. T.

Campbell, S.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Codemard, C.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, B.

Corrado, B. J.

Dhar, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Fender, A.

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Godfrey, I.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

Ho, K.-P.

Imamura, K.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, T. Yagi, “ Effective space-division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, P1.09 (2010).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Inaba, H.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Inan, B.

Jain, S.

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 582–584 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, “Er/Yb-doped cladding-pumped multi-element fiber amplifier,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and Their Applications, W5.4, (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

Jung, Y.

Kahn, J. M.

Kang, Q.

Kanno, A.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Kar, A. K.

Kawanishi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Klaus, W.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Kokubun, Y.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubun, M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electronics 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Y. Kokubun, M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electronics 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerov, M.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, G.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Liñares, J.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Macpherson, W. N.

Maeda, K.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mateo, E.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, S.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Matsuura, H.

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

May-Smith, T. C.

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 582–584 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, “Er/Yb-doped cladding-pumped multi-element fiber amplifier,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and Their Applications, W5.4, (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

Mimura, Y.

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Miyabe, R.

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E. M.

Montero, C.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mukasa, K.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, T. Yagi, “ Effective space-division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, P1.09 (2010).

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Petropoulos, P.

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

Poletti, F.

Psaila, N. D.

Puttnam, B. J.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Rancaño, V. J. F.

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

Reid, D. T.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 582–584 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, B. Inan, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, Z. Li, P. S. Teh, A. Dhar, J. Sahu, F. Poletti, S.-U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber amplifier for mode-division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10383–10392 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, A. Dhar, A. S. Webb, M. Belal, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped multi-element fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing operations,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 582–584 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, “Er/Yb-doped cladding-pumped multi-element fiber amplifier,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and Their Applications, W5.4, (2013).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Saitoh, K.

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, J.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

Sasaoka, E.

Schulzgen, A.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, O.

Singleton, J.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Sugizaki, R.

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Supradeepa, V. R.

Taru, T.

Taunay, T. F.

Teh, P. S.

Thomson, R. R.

Thornburg, W. Q.

Tkach, R. W.

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communication for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. Journal 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tshuchida, Y.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Tsuchida, Y.

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P. W.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veljanovski, V.

Wada, N.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Watanbe, K.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

Webb, A. S.

Winfield, R.

Wisk, P. W.

Xia, C.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, T.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, T. Yagi, “ Effective space-division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, P1.09 (2010).

Yan, M. F.

Yla-Jarkko, K. H.

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Zhu, X. D.

Bell Labs Tech. Journal (1)

R. W. Tkach, “Scaling optical communication for the next decade and beyond,” Bell Labs Tech. Journal 14(4), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Xia, R. Amezcua-Correa, N. Bai, E. Anotnio-Lopez, D. M. Arroija, A. Schulzgen, M. Richardson, J. Liñares, C. Montero, E. Mateo, X. Zhou, G. Li, “Hole-assisted few-mode multicore fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(21), 1914–1917 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yla-Jarkko, C. Codemard, J. Singleton, P. W. Turner, I. Godfrey, S.-U. Alam, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, A. B. Grudinin, “Low noise intelligent cladding-pump L-band EDFA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 909–911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electronics (1)

Y. Kokubun, M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electronics 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16576–16592 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s Space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16665–16671 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. Macpherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11691–11697 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, P. W. Wisk, “Amplification and noise properties of an erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16715–16721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Abedin, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, D. J. DiGiovanni, V. R. Supradeepa, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, B. Zhu, E. M. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, “Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20191–20200 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, B. Inan, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, Z. Li, P. S. Teh, A. Dhar, J. Sahu, F. Poletti, S.-U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber amplifier for mode-division multiplexed transmission,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10383–10392 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (11)

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, V. J. F. Rancaño, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, J. K. Sahu, “Multi-element fibre for space-division multiplexed transmission,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Mo.4.A.2 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. F. Rancaño, S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of Amplified Transmission line based on Multi-element Fibre Technology,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, PD1.C.2 (2013).

S. Jain, T. C. May-Smith, J. K. Sahu, “Er/Yb-doped cladding-pumped multi-element fiber amplifier,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and Their Applications, W5.4, (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. U. Alam, A. T. Harkar, R. J. Horley, F. Ghiringhelli, M. P. Varnham, P. W. Turner, and M. N. Zervas, “All-fibre, high power, cladding-pumped 1565nm MOPA using high brightness 1535nm pump sources,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics, CWJ4, (2008).

Y. Mimura, Y. Tsuchida, K. Maeda, R. Miyabe, K. Aiso, H. Matsuura, R. Sugizaki, “Batch multicore amplification with cladding-pumped multicore EDF,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, Tu.4.F.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Peckham, Y. Sun, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, Jr., “Few-mode fiber technology for spatial multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VI-A: Components and Subsystems, I. P. Kaminov, T. Li, and A. E. Wilner, eds., Elsevier, 2013, 283–320.

Y. Tshuchida, K. Maeda, K. Watanbe, T. Saito, S. Matsumoto, K. Aiso, Y. Mimura, R. Sugizaki, “Simultaneous 7-core pumped amplification in multicore EDF through fiber based fan-in/out,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, OC, Tu.4F.2 (2012).

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, “Large-scale space division multiplexed transmission through multi-core fiber,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, AS2C.5, (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communications, PDP5C.1 (2012).

Y. Awaji, K. Saitoh, and S. Matsuo, “Transmission systems using multicore fibers,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume VI-B: Systems and Networks, I. P. Kaminov, T. Li, and A. E. Wilner, eds. Elsevier, 2013, 617–652.

K. Imamura, K. Mukasa, T. Yagi, “ Effective space-division multiplexing by multi-core fibers,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, P1.09 (2010).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Microscope image of a) non-compact and, b) compact Ge-doped 3-MEF cross-section with dual polymer coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OTDR loss for one of the fiber-elements (F2) and fiber-elements looped back in 3-MEF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematic of the 5-MEF preform assembly, and b) microscope image of the 5-MEF cross-section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for gain and noise figure measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Gain and noise figure variation with wavelength for MEF signal fibers with a pump power of 6.4W and input signal of −23dBm, and b) pump power vs. gain for −23dBm input signal at a wavelength of 1543nm for signal fibers S1 and S2 respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength variation of a) ASE, and b) gain for different cascaded amplifier configurations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gain and NF performance of cascade combinations; a) S2, b) S2-S4, c) S2-S4-S1, and d) output spectra corresponding to three cascading cases. (Note the dots represent the experimental data and solid lines are simply trend lines to help guide the eye)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental set-up and cross-section of the MEF [26] and ME-EYDFA [23].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

a) Input and output spectra for the signals coming from the dark fiber link, and b) BER curves for the single amplification experiment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectra a) after three amplifications with three single-stage ME-EYDFA, and b) with two single stage amplifiers and a dual-stage amplifier.

Metrics