Abstract

A novel optically controlled phased array antenna consisting a simple optical beamforming network and an N element linear patch antenna array is proposed and demonstrated. The optical beamforming network is realized by N independent phase shifters using a shared optical single sideband (OSSB) polarization modulator together with N polarization controllers (PCs), N polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and N photodetectors (PDs). An experiment is carried out. A 4-element linear patch antenna array operating at 14 GHz and a 1 × 4 optical beamforming network (OBFN) is employed to realize the phased array antenna. The radiation patterns of the phased array antenna at −30°, 0° and 30° are achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Tang, R. W. Burns, “Array technology,” Proc. IEEE 80(1), 173–182 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. A. Riza, Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (SPIE, 1997).
  3. J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Dolfi, F. Michel-Gabriel, S. Bann, J. P. Huignard, “Two-dimensional optical architecture for time-delay beam forming in a phased-array antenna,” Opt. Lett. 16(4), 255–257 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1974–1984 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Riza, “Acousto-optic liquid-crystal analog beam former for phased-array antennas,” Appl. Opt. 33(17), 3712–3724 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. M. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, V. Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamfomer for broadband phased array receive antennas—part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 3–18 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. A. Riza, “Analog vector modulation-based widely tunable frequency photonic beamformer for phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1508–1512 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. L. Pan, Y. M. Zhang, “Tunable and wideband microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single-sideband polarization modulator and a polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4483–4485 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. A. Riza, S. A. Khan, M. A. Arain, “Flexible beamforming for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Opt. Commun. 227(4-6), 301–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Analog vector modulation-based widely tunable frequency photonic beamformer for phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1508–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

R. Tang, R. W. Burns, “Array technology,” Proc. IEEE 80(1), 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1974–1984 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Dolfi, F. Michel-Gabriel, S. Bann, J. P. Huignard, “Two-dimensional optical architecture for time-delay beam forming in a phased-array antenna,” Opt. Lett. 16(4), 255–257 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arain, M. A.

N. A. Riza, S. A. Khan, M. A. Arain, “Flexible beamforming for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Opt. Commun. 227(4-6), 301–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bann, S.

Bentum, M. J.

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bui, L. A.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burla, M.

Burns, R. W.

R. Tang, R. W. Burns, “Array technology,” Proc. IEEE 80(1), 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carpentieri, E.

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

Chio, T.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corral, J. L.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D’Elia, U. F.

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

De Stefano, E.

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

Di Guida, L.

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

Dolfi, D.

Etten, V.

Foster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghorbani, K.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. X. H.

X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Hulzinga, A.

Jorna, P.

Khan, S. A.

N. A. Riza, S. A. Khan, M. A. Arain, “Flexible beamforming for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Opt. Commun. 227(4-6), 301–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, E. R.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mansoori, S.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marpaung, D. A. I.

Mart, J.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

Meijerink, R.

Michel-Gabriel, F.

Minasian, R. A.

X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A.

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ncwberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. L.

Regidor, S.

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, S. A. Khan, M. A. Arain, “Flexible beamforming for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Opt. Commun. 227(4-6), 301–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Analog vector modulation-based widely tunable frequency photonic beamformer for phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1508–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Acousto-optic liquid-crystal analog beam former for phased-array antennas,” Appl. Opt. 33(17), 3712–3724 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1974–1984 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

Tang, R.

R. Tang, R. W. Burns, “Array technology,” Proc. IEEE 80(1), 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Verpoorte, J.

Vitiello, R.

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. P.

Yi, X. K.

X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. M.

Zhuang, L. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. K. Yi, T. X. H. Huang, R. A. Minasian, “Photonic beamforming based on programmable phase shifters with amplitude and phase control,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(18), 1286–1288 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

L. A. Bui, A. Mitchell, K. Ghorbani, T. Chio, S. Mansoori, E. R. Lopez, “Wide-band photonically phased array antenna using vector sum phase shifting approach,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53(11), 3589–3596 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (2)

J. L. Corral, J. Mart, S. Regidor, J. M. Foster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, “Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1531–1536 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Analog vector modulation-based widely tunable frequency photonic beamformer for phased array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 45(8), 1508–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Ncwberg, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. M. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, V. Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamfomer for broadband phased array receive antennas—part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 3–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical control of phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(12), 1974–1984 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. A. Riza, S. A. Khan, M. A. Arain, “Flexible beamforming for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Opt. Commun. 227(4-6), 301–310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Tang, R. W. Burns, “Array technology,” Proc. IEEE 80(1), 173–182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. A. Riza, Selected Papers on Photonic Control Systems for Phased Array Antennas (SPIE, 1997).

E. Carpentieri, U. F. D’Elia, E. De Stefano, L. Di Guida, R. Vitiello, “Millimeter-wave phased-array antennas,” in IEEE Radar Conference (RADAR'08) (2008), pp. 1–5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of beam forming using phase shifters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The schematic diagram of the proposed phased array antenna. LD: laser diode; PC: polarization controller; OBPF: optical bandpass filter; PolM: polarization modulator; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PD: photodetector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photos of the proposed phased array antenna in an anechoic chamber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The simulated and experimentally measured radiation patterns of the phased array antenna based on the OBFN when the angle of the beam is (a) −30°, (b) 0°, and (c) 30°. The black dashed and the red solid curves are the simulated and experimental results, respectively.

Equations (3)

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Δ R = d sin θ
Δ ϕ = 2 π Δ R / λ
θ= sin 1 ΔR d = sin 1 λΔϕ d2π

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