Abstract

Carrier-envelope-phase (CEP)-dependent modulation was measured in above-threshold ionization of xenon driven with 30-fs laser pulses. We showed the dependence from the asymmetry map obtained using a velocity map imaging spectrometer, up to 17 eV in photoelectron energy. The dependence appeared to be linear with a slope of one photon energy increase per CEP change of 2π and did not rely on the sign or the amount of laser chirp. Our results indicated the existence of the quantum interference between different multiphoton ionization paths.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 m,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Renziehausen, K. Hader, W. Jakubetz, V. Engel, “Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation,” ChemPhysChem 14, 1464–1470 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, K. Liu, Y. Fu, K. Midorikawa, “Carrier envelope phase dependence of electron localization in the multicycle regime,” New J. Phys. 15, 063023 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, “General theory of carrier-envelope phase effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220406 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of abel-transformable images: The gaussian basis-set expansion abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634–2642 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, A. Apolonski, “Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

K. Renziehausen, K. Hader, W. Jakubetz, V. Engel, “Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation,” ChemPhysChem 14, 1464–1470 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, K. Liu, Y. Fu, K. Midorikawa, “Carrier envelope phase dependence of electron localization in the multicycle regime,” New J. Phys. 15, 063023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, “General theory of carrier-envelope phase effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, A. Apolonski, “Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of abel-transformable images: The gaussian basis-set expansion abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 595–601 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 m,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Abel, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Afaneh, F.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, A. Apolonski, “Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A. D.

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, A. Apolonski, “Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busuladžic, M.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

S. Chelkowski, A. D. Bandrauk, A. Apolonski, “Phase-dependent asymmetries in strong-field photoionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 013815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. Dietrich, F. Krausz, P. B. Corkum, “Determining the absolute carrier phase of a few-cycle laser pulse,” Opt. Lett. 25, 16–18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darack, S.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietrich, P.

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doblhoff-Dier, K.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dribinski, V.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of abel-transformable images: The gaussian basis-set expansion abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Engel, V.

K. Renziehausen, K. Hader, W. Jakubetz, V. Engel, “Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation,” ChemPhysChem 14, 1464–1470 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eremina, E.

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T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
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A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
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G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
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J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
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P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
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H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
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H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
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H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
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H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
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P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, K. Liu, Y. Fu, K. Midorikawa, “Carrier envelope phase dependence of electron localization in the multicycle regime,” New J. Phys. 15, 063023 (2013).
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X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
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H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
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X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
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A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 m,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
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Mainfray, G.

A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 m,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
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P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
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A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 m,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
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McPherson, A.

Mergel, V.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
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P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, K. Liu, Y. Fu, K. Midorikawa, “Carrier envelope phase dependence of electron localization in the multicycle regime,” New J. Phys. 15, 063023 (2013).
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R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
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A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
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M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
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M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
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M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
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J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
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M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
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G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
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Nisoli, M.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
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G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
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G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
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V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of abel-transformable images: The gaussian basis-set expansion abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634–2642 (2002).
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J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
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Park, J. J.

J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
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Pascolini, M.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan, W.

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, N. K. Rahman, “Free-free transitions following 6-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rathje, T.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reisler, H.

V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, H. Reisler, “Reconstruction of abel-transformable images: The gaussian basis-set expansion abel transform method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634–2642 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renziehausen, K.

K. Renziehausen, K. Hader, W. Jakubetz, V. Engel, “Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation,” ChemPhysChem 14, 1464–1470 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

Roither, S.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roudnev, V.

V. Roudnev, B. D. Esry, “General theory of carrier-envelope phase effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 220406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sautenkov, V. A.

P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sayler, A. M.

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schöffler, M. S.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, D.

R. R. Freeman, P. H. Bucksbaum, H. Milchberg, S. Darack, D. Schumacher, M. E. Geusic, “Above-threshold ionization with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1092–1095 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

P. K. Jha, Y. V. Rostovtsev, H. Li, V. A. Sautenkov, M. O. Scully, “Experimental observation of carrier-envelope-phase effects by multicycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 033404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siu, W. K.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spielberger, L.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

P. Lan, E. J. Takahashi, K. Liu, Y. Fu, K. Midorikawa, “Carrier envelope phase dependence of electron localization in the multicycle regime,” New J. Phys. 15, 063023 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, G.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Urbasch, G.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, G. Tondello, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Observation of carrier-envelope phase phenomena in the multi-optical-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, B.

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B. B.

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, T.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckenbrock, M.

T. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, R. Dörner, “Recoil-ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443–446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

H. Kang, W. Quan, Y. Wang, Z. Lin, M. Wu, H. Liu, X. Liu, B. B. Wang, H. J. Liu, Y. Q. Gu, X. Y. Jia, J. Liu, J. Chen, Y. Cheng, “Structure effects in angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 203001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

X. Xie, K. Doblhoff-Dier, S. Roither, M. S. Schöffler, D. Kartashov, H. Xu, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, S. Gräfe, M. Kitzler, “Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 243001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambropoulos, H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Z.-C.

X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

B. Yang, K. J. Schafer, B. Walker, K. C. Kulander, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, “Intensity-dependent scattering rings in high order above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3770–3773 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T. J.

J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, G. L.

G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, J. Chen, P. Fu, X. Liu, Z.-C. Yan, B. Wang, “Carrier-envelope-phase effect in a long laser pulse with tens of optical cycles,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043411 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Znakovskaya, I.

A. Gazibegović-Busuladžić, E. Hasović, M. Busuladžić, D. B. Milošević, F. Kelkensberg, W. K. Siu, M. J. J. Vrakking, F. Lépine, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, I. Znakovskaya, M. F. Kling, “Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 043426 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

W. Becker, F. Grasbon, R. Kopold, D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, “Above-threshold ionization: From classical features to quantum effects,” Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 35–98 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

J.-h. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, J. J. Park, D. S. Kim, T. J. Yu, C. H. Nam, “Implementation of the direct locking method for long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a grating-based khz femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 96, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Möller, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, M. Chini, Z. Chang, G. G. Paulus, “Precise, real-time, single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement in the multi-cycle regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

K. Renziehausen, K. Hader, W. Jakubetz, V. Engel, “Weak-field, multiple-cycle carrier envelope phase effects in laser excitation,” ChemPhysChem 14, 1464–1470 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

G. G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, H. Walther, “Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization - a classical model,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27, L703–L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

D. B. Milošević, G. G. Paulus, D. Bauer, W. Becker, “Above-threshold ionization by few-cycle pulses,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, R203–R262 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Abel, T. Pfeifer, A. Jullien, P. M. Nagel, M. J. Bell, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent quantum interferences in multiphoton ionization,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 075601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schätzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, A. J. Verhoef, E. Hasović, T. Uphues, D. B. Milošević, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, “Imaging of carrier-envelope phase effects in above-threshold ionization with intense few-cycle laser fields,” New J. Phys. 10, 025024 (2008).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the experimental setup. CM: concave mirror (f=60 cm); ε̂: laser polarization; G: ground plate; E: extractor electrode; R: Repeller electrode; MCP+PS: dual microchannel plates assembled with a phosphor screen; CCD: charge-coupled device camera. (b) Reconstructed momentum distribution of the ATI electrons from xenon atoms irradiated by a 30-fs, 5 × 1013 W/cm2 laser pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Asymmetry map as a function of CEP and electron energy and (b) electron spectra at the two directions along the laser polarization for the CEP, ϕ = π. The shortest 30-fs laser pulses with intensity of 5 × 1013 W/cm2 were applied.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Asymmetry maps obtained with various chirped laser pulses. The chirp was controlled by adjusting the grating separation. The sign of laser chirp, pulse width, and peak intensity are as follows: (a) (+)35 fs, 4.5 × 1013 W/cm2; (b) (+)30 fs, 5.0 × 1013 W/cm2; (c) (−)31 fs, 5.0×1013 W/cm2; and (d) (−)35 fs, 4.3×1013 W/cm2. Group delay dispersion (GDD) of each case is (a) +227 fs2, (b) +107 fs2, (c) −152 fs2, and (d) −206 fs2, respectively.

Equations (1)

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A ( E , ϕ ) = P + ( E , ϕ ) P ( E , ϕ ) P + ( E , ϕ ) + P ( E , ϕ ) ,

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