Abstract

A 3D-sensitified and strain-enhanced UV wire-photodetector has been fabricated with ZnO NWs grown on an oxidized Ni wire by chemical vapor deposition method. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the device shows a sharp UV peak at around 380 nm and a negligible peak at around 520 nm, which proves that the as-prepared ZnO nanowires were well-crystallized. The current-voltage (I-V) and current-time (I-T) characteristics under different rotation angles of the heterojunctions show good rectifying diode behaviors and stability under different angles which make 3D detection possible. The sensitivity of the device is enhanced by strains due to piezotronic effect of ZnO nanowires. These performances of the device demonstrates a promising approach to 3D photodetecting and strain sensing and also provide a prospective application to the development of weaving single wire into fabrics technology.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Liu, W. W. Tian, X. H. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Enhancement of ultraviolet detecting by coupling the photoconductive behavior of GaN nanowires and p-n junction,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20748–20753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

L. Wen, K. M. Wong, Y. Fang, M. Wu, Y. Lei, “Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned, high density ZnO nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky device applications using a two-step approach,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7090–7097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Dhara, P. Giri, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity from rapid thermal annealed vertically aligned ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, M. Misra, “Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Wires Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2196–2200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Zou, D. Wang, Z. Z. Chu, Z. B. Lv, X. Fan, “Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(9–10), 1169–1178 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, J. J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Chen, Y. S. Yang, “Effect of crystallographic orientations on electrical properties of sputter-deposited nickel oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(16), 5590–5596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Z. L. Wang, “Nanopiezotronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 889–892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. F. Martinson, J. W. Elam, J. T. Hupp, M. J. Pellin, “ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2183–2187 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Z. L. Wang, J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

I. Shalish, H. Temkin, V. Narayanamurti, “Size-dependent surface luminescence in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Zhao, Z. L. Wang, S. X. Mao, “Piezoelectric Characterization of Individual Zinc Oxide Nanobelt Probed by Piezoresponse Force Microscope,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 587–590 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

D. Adler, J. Feinleib, “Electrical and optical properties of narrow-band materials,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 3112–3134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D.

D. Adler, J. Feinleib, “Electrical and optical properties of narrow-band materials,” Phys. Rev. B 2(8), 3112–3134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. E.

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bello, I.

S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benayad, A.

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byun, I. S.

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

H. L. Chen, Y. S. Yang, “Effect of crystallographic orientations on electrical properties of sputter-deposited nickel oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(16), 5590–5596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, A.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H. K.

B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. S.

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Z. Z.

D. C. Zou, D. Wang, Z. Z. Chu, Z. B. Lv, X. Fan, “Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(9–10), 1169–1178 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delaunay, J. J.

Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, J. J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Della Valle, F.

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S. Dhara, P. Giri, “Enhanced UV photosensitivity from rapid thermal annealed vertically aligned ZnO nanowires,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 504 (2011).
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F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
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Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
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H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
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X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
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A. B. F. Martinson, J. W. Elam, J. T. Hupp, M. J. Pellin, “ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2183–2187 (2007).
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S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
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B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
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H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
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S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
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B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
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S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
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C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
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S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
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S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
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Kutsay, O.

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C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
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B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
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B. O. Jung, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, “High-Purity Ultraviolet Electroluminescence from n-ZnO Nanowires/p+-Si Heterostructure LEDs with i-MgO Film as Carrier Control Layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(2), H102–H106 (2012).
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C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
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S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
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G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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L. Wen, K. M. Wong, Y. Fang, M. Wu, Y. Lei, “Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned, high density ZnO nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky device applications using a two-step approach,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7090–7097 (2011).
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G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
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Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, J. J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. F. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
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Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
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G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
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C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
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Liu, Y.

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Z. Y. Liu, M. Misra, “Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Wires Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2196–2200 (2010).
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Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
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A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
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S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
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S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
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D. C. Zou, D. Wang, Z. Z. Chu, Z. B. Lv, X. Fan, “Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(9–10), 1169–1178 (2010).
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A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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A. B. F. Martinson, J. W. Elam, J. T. Hupp, M. J. Pellin, “ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2183–2187 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
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S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
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Z. Y. Liu, M. Misra, “Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Wires Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2196–2200 (2010).
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F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
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Ohta, H.

H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Omaev, A.

Y. I. Alivov, E. Kalinina, A. Cherenkov, D. Look, B. Ataev, A. Omaev, M. Chukichev, D. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pellin, M. J.

A. B. F. Martinson, J. W. Elam, J. T. Hupp, M. J. Pellin, “ZnO Nanotube Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2183–2187 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, J. C.

S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shafiq, I.

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalish, I.

I. Shalish, H. Temkin, V. Narayanamurti, “Size-dependent surface luminescence in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Q.

S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y. T.

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shiojiri, M.

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simonnet, M.

Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, J. J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wang, J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanovich, G.

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

N. S. Liu, W. W. Tian, X. H. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Enhancement of ultraviolet detecting by coupling the photoconductive behavior of GaN nanowires and p-n junction,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20748–20753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. L.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

H. Ohta, M. Hirano, K. Nakahara, H. Maruta, T. Tanabe, M. Kamiya, T. Kamiya, H. Hosono, “Fabrication and photoresponse of a pn-heterojunction diode composed of transparent oxide semiconductors, p-NiO and n-ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(5), 1029–1031 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. X.

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. W.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

I. Shalish, H. Temkin, V. Narayanamurti, “Size-dependent surface luminescence in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W. W.

Toyoda, T.

S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. W.

A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. C. Zou, D. Wang, Z. Z. Chu, Z. B. Lv, X. Fan, “Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(9–10), 1169–1178 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. Z.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. H.

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wang, “Nanopiezotronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 889–892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wang, J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric Nanogenerators Based on Zinc Oxide Nanowire Arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Zhao, Z. L. Wang, S. X. Mao, “Piezoelectric Characterization of Individual Zinc Oxide Nanobelt Probed by Piezoresponse Force Microscope,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 587–590 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, L.

L. Wen, K. M. Wong, Y. Fang, M. Wu, Y. Lei, “Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned, high density ZnO nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky device applications using a two-step approach,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7090–7097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. M.

L. Wen, K. M. Wong, Y. Fang, M. Wu, Y. Lei, “Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned, high density ZnO nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky device applications using a two-step approach,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7090–7097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

L. Wen, K. M. Wong, Y. Fang, M. Wu, Y. Lei, “Fabrication and characterization of well-aligned, high density ZnO nanowire arrays and their realizations in Schottky device applications using a two-step approach,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(20), 7090–7097 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, T.

Xu, J.

Xu, N. S.

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, I.

Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, J. J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. D. Yang, “Room-Temperature Ultraviolet Nanowire Nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. S.

H. L. Chen, Y. S. Yang, “Effect of crystallographic orientations on electrical properties of sputter-deposited nickel oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 516(16), 5590–5596 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z. Z.

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, I. K.

C. B. Lee, B. S. Kang, A. Benayad, M. J. Lee, S. E. Ahn, K. H. Kim, G. Stefanovich, Y. Park, I. K. Yoo, “Effects of metal electrodes on the resistive memory switching property of NiO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 042115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Seo, M. J. Lee, D. C. Kim, S. E. Ahn, B. H. Park, Y. S. Kim, I. K. Yoo, I. S. Byun, I. R. Hwang, S. H. Kim, J. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, J. H. Lee, S. H. Jeon, S. H. Hong, B. H. Park, “Electrode dependence of resistance switching in polycrystalline NiO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 263507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G. D.

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zapien, J. A.

S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. F.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

N. S. Liu, W. W. Tian, X. H. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Enhancement of ultraviolet detecting by coupling the photoconductive behavior of GaN nanowires and p-n junction,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20748–20753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. X.

S. Q. Huang, Q. X. Zhang, X. M. Huang, X. Z. Guo, M. H. Deng, D. M. Li, Y. H. Luo, Q. Shen, T. Toyoda, Q. B. Meng, “Fibrous CdS/CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized solar cells based on ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Nanotechnology 21(37), 375201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. J.

S. Jha, J. C. Qian, O. Kutsay, J. Kovac, C. Y. Luan, J. A. Zapien, W. J. Zhang, S. T. Lee, I. Bello, “Violet-blue LEDs based on p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorods and their stability,” Nanotechnology 22(24), 245202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

G. Cheng, X. Wu, B. Liu, B. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Du, “ZnO nanowire Schottky barrier ultraviolet photodetector with high sensitivity and fast recovery speed,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

N. S. Liu, W. W. Tian, X. H. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Enhancement of ultraviolet detecting by coupling the photoconductive behavior of GaN nanowires and p-n junction,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20748–20753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Zhang, X. Y. Han, J. Su, Q. Zhang, Y. H. Gao, “Well vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays with an ultra-fast recovery time for UV photodetector,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 255–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, M. H.

M. H. Zhao, Z. L. Wang, S. X. Mao, “Piezoelectric Characterization of Individual Zinc Oxide Nanobelt Probed by Piezoresponse Force Microscope,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 587–590 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

X. D. Wang, J. Zhou, J. H. Song, J. Liu, N. S. Xu, Z. L. Wang, “Piezoelectric Field Effect Transistor and Nanoforce Sensor Based on a Single ZnO Nanowire,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2768–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, D. C.

D. C. Zou, D. Wang, Z. Z. Chu, Z. B. Lv, X. Fan, “Fiber-shaped flexible solar cells,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(9–10), 1169–1178 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, L. Chen, C. Zhang, F. Z. Wang, Y. W. Tang, J. L. Sun, D. C. Zou, “Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 113510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (3)

Z. Y. Liu, M. Misra, “Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Wires Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2196–2200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, X. Guo, W. H. Wang, Y. Zhang, S. Xu, D. H. Lien, Z. L. Wang, “Enhancing Sensitivity of a Single ZnO Micro-/Nanowire Photodetector by Piezo-phototronic Effect,” ACS Nano 4(10), 6285–6291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, S. M. Niu, W. X. Guo, G. Zhu, Y. Liu, X. L. Zhang, Z. L. Wang, “Piezo-phototronic Effect Enhanced Visible/UV Photodetector of a Carbon-Fiber/ZnO-CdS Double-Shell Microwire,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4537–4544 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

X. Fan, Z. Z. Chu, F. Z. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. W. Tang, D. C. Zou, “Wire-Shaped Flexible Dye-sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 20(3), 592–595 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Manekkathodi, M. Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, L. J. Chen, “Direct Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Paper Substrates for Low-Cost Flexible Electronics,” Adv. Mater. 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wang, “Nanopiezotronics,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 889–892 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Yuan, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. Fan, J. X. Tang, I. Shafiq, Z. Z. Ye, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, “Tunable n-Type Conductivity and Transport Properties of Ga-doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 168–173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. T. Shih, M. Wu, M. Chen, Y. Cheng, J. Yang, M. Shiojiri, “ZnO-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes on p-SiC(4H) grown by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 767–772 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical images of the as-prepared ZnO nanowires grown on oxidized Ni wire. (b) Schematic diagram of the device. (c) I-V characteristics of the Pt/ZnO/Pt structure used to measure the contact properties, inset shows the schematic diagram of the Pt/ZnO/Pt structure.(d) UV-VIS absorption pattern of the NWs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-view FESEM micrograph of the wire-shaped device. (b) FESEM micrograph of the ZnO NWs grown on oxidized Ni wire in different magnifications. (c) TEM image of the as-grown ZnO NWs, insert is the SAED pattern. (d) Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO NWs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 3D home made probe table used to measure the piezotronic properties of the device. (b) I-V characteristics of the device under dark and UV illumination conditions with different rotation angles, the inset shows the magnified I-V curves in dark conditions. (c) I-T characteristics of the device under different angles with a 1 V forward bias. (d) Enlarged I-T curve of the device in one cycle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic measurement diagram of piezotronic properties. (b) I-V characteristics of the device under different strains. (c) I-T characteristics of the device under different strains with a forward bias of 1 V. (d) Energy band diagram of a the NiO/ZnO NWs heterjunction based device with and without strain.

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