Abstract

We demonstrate frequency comb sources based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators. Frequency combs with line spacings of 25 GHz and 40 GHz are generated, featuring flat-top spectra with less than 2 dB power variations over up to 7 lines. The combs are used for WDM data transmission at terabit/s data rates and distances of up to 300 km.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (2)

A. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. Leaird, A. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electro-optic frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Dupuis, C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, L. Chen, N. J. Sauer, P. Dong, L. L. Buhl, D. Ahn, “InP-based comb generator for optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 466–472 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Biberman, K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

2011 (6)

J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Dong, Y. Shao, N. Chi, “Generation of full C-band coherent and frequency-lock multi-carriers by using recirculating frequency shifter loops based on phase modulator with external injection,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26370–26381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, Z. Wang, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, “Transmission of spectral efficient super-channels using all-optical OFDM and digital coherent receiver technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3838–3844 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 Mhz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

M. Watts, W. Zortman, D. Trotter, R. Young, A. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, “Generation of very flat optical frequency combs from continuous-wave lasers using cascaded intensity and phase modulators driven by tailored radio frequency waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3234–3236 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, P. Delfyett, “Ultraflat optical comb generation by phase-only modulation of continuous-wave light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(1), 36–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Baehr-Jones, M. J. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (8)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1515–1517 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gheorma, G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Healy, F. C. Garcia Gunning, A. D. Ellis, J. D. Bull, “Multi-wavelength source using low drive-voltage amplitude modulators for optical communications,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2981–2986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultra-flat frequency comb generation using conventional dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Veselka, S. Korotky, “A multiwavelength source having precise channel spacing for WDM systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10(7), 958–960 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K.-P. Ho, J. Kahn, “Optical frequency comb generator using phase modulation in amplified circulating loop,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(6), 721–725 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Alloatti, L.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Altenhain, L.

Andreani, L. C.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baehr-Jones, T. W.

T. W. Baehr-Jones, M. J. Hochberg, “Polymer silicon hybrid systems: A platform for practical nonlinear optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
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R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
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R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
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S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, P. Delfyett, “Ultraflat optical comb generation by phase-only modulation of continuous-wave light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(1), 36–38 (2008).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Huang, J.

Huang, M.-F.

Huang, S.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 Mhz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
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J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
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Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-K.

Huber, G.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
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Izhaky, N.

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Jen, A. K.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 Mhz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
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J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
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Jordan, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
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T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultra-flat frequency comb generation using conventional dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1039 (2007).
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T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1515–1517 (2007).
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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
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Kleinow, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
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R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
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R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
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R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
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J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
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L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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A. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. Leaird, A. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electro-optic frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3500306 (2013).
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R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Long, C. M.

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, A.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 Mhz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
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J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, S. Prorok, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Jenett, A. Jacob, “40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2753–2755 (2010).
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Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
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Lutz, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marculescu, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Melikyan, A.

Metcalf, A.

A. Metcalf, V. Torres-Company, D. Leaird, A. Weiner, “High-power broadly tunable electro-optic frequency comb generator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3500306 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M.

Mizuochi, T.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Narkiss, N.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebendahl, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Onohara, K.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ozdur, I.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, P. Delfyett, “Ultraflat optical comb generation by phase-only modulation of continuous-wave light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(1), 36–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, P. Delfyett, “Ultraflat optical comb generation by phase-only modulation of continuous-wave light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(1), 36–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polishak, B. M.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prorok, S.

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, P. Delfyett, “Ultraflat optical comb generation by phase-only modulation of continuous-wave light,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(1), 36–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

Resan, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roeger, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultra-flat frequency comb generation using conventional dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Electron. Lett. 43(19), 1039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1515–1517 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, N. J.

Schellinger, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schindler, P.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon-organic hybrid technology,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(13), 1226–1229 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, P. C.

Schmogrow, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, M. Meyer, S. Wolf, M. Jordan, P. Kleinow, N. Lindenmann, P. C. Schindler, A. Melikyan, X. Yang, S. Ben-Ezra, B. Nebendahl, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, L. Altenhain, T. Ellermeyer, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Single-laser 32.5 Tbit/s Nyquist WDM transmission,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(10), 715–723 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(1), 61–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, S. Wolf, B. Baeuerle, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM,” Opt. Express 20(1), 317–337 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit/s line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “Real-time Software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shao, Y.

Shi, Z.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, A. K. Jen, “Tailored organic electro-optic materials and their hybrid systems for device applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, W. Liang, J. Luo, S. Huang, B. M. Polishak, X. Li, T. R. Younkin, B. A. Block, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Tuning the kinetics and energetics of Diels−Alder cycloaddition reactions to improve poling efficiency and thermal stability of high-temperature cross-linked electro-optic polymers,” Chem. Mater. 22(19), 5601–5608 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Sullivan, P.

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[CrossRef]

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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-drive frequency comb generator and spectrum. (a) Schematic cross-section and simulated optical mode of a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) phase modulator. The two rails of a silicon slot waveguide are electrically connected to metal electrodes by 60 nm high n-doped silicon strips. The waveguide is covered by an electro-optic cladding material (DLD164), which entirely fills the slot. (b) Integrated dual-drive frequency comb generator: A tunable laser source (TLS) is coupled to a dual-drive SOH Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) via grating couplers. The arms are driven by two sinusoidal 40 GHz signals. Flat combs are obtained by carefully adjusting the signal powers and phases along with the bias voltage UBias. Fiber-chip coupling losses are compensated by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). (c) Flat-top spectrum obtained for electrical drive powers of 28 dBm and 23 dBm measured at the output of the amplifiers, showing 7 lines within 2 dB flatness. The lines are spaced by 40 GHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-drive frequency comb generator and spectra. (a) Schematic of the single-drive push-pull frequency comb generator: A tunable laser source (TLS) is coupled to the SOH MZM via grating couplers. The device is driven by sinusoidal signals of different frequencies, thereby defining the line spacing of the generated comb. The operation point can be chosen with the bias voltage UBias. The electrodes are terminated with 50 Ω. Fiber-chip coupling losses are compensated by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). (b) Resulting optical spectrum using an electrical drive signal of 25 GHz and a RF power of 23 dBm, yielding 7 lines with a spectral flatness of 10 dB. (c) Resulting optical spectrum using an electrical drive signal of 40 GHz and a RF power of 29 dBm, yielding 7 lines with a spectral flatness of 7 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Data transmission setup. A wavelength-selective switch (WSS) splits the comb into even and odd carriers which are modulated independently in a multi-format transmitter. The two sets of channels are recombined, and polarization multiplexing (PolMUX) is emulated by creating time-shifted copies of the data stream and merging them on orthogonal polarizations. Experiment 1: In a first experiment, the data is fed directly into the receiver (back-to-back, b2b). Experiment 2: Up to 4 spans of 75 km SMF are used for transmission over up to 300 km. At the receiver, the signal is amplified and the channels are demultiplexed and detected by an optical modulation analyzer (OMA). A free-running external cavity laser acts as a local oscillator (LO) for coherent reception.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of back-to-back data transmission. A total of 9 carriers spaced by 25 GHz were generated by an integrated SOH comb source. Optical spectrum of the modulated carriers (left) and constellation diagrams (right) for all channels and both polarizations are depicted along with measured EVM values. The 7 strongest carriers were modulated with Nyquist pulse-shaped 16QAM signals, whereas QPSK was used for weaker carriers 1 and 9. The symbol rate is 18 GBd. We obtain BER values below the hard-decision threshold for all channels, yielding an aggregate line rate of 1.152 Tbit/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results for data transmission of QPSK signals: (a) Optical spectrum of the modulated carriers. The 7 strongest carriers are spectrally flattened by the WSS. (b) The average EVM of both polarizations over channel number are shown color-coded (and slightly offset for clarity of presentation) for each length of fiber span (0 km, 75 km, 150 km, 225 km, 300 km). Drift of the operation point of the integrated comb source leads to some deviations from equal optical power for each channel, but BER below 10−6 are achieved for all channels nonetheless. (c) Constellation diagrams of all 7 channels and both polarizations after 300 km transmission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results for data transmission of NRZ QPSK signals: (a) Optical spectrum of the modulated carriers for 40 GHz spacing and 29 dBm of RF power measured at the output of the drive amplifier. (b) Average EVM of both polarizations over channel number. The results obtained for different fiber spans (0 km, 75 km, 150 km, 225 km, 300 km) are color-coded and slightly offset for clarity of presentation. Drift of the operating point of the comb source leads to variations of the BER obtained for different transmission distances. Nonetheless, BER values below the hard-decision threshold of 4.5 × 10−3 are achieved for all channels, yielding a gross line rate of 1.008 Tbit/s.

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